The Works of John Farndale

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This page transcripts the works by John Farndale who wrote extensively of Saltburn, Kilton and the surrounding area

 

 

 

  

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A Guide to Saltburn by the Sea and the Surrounding District

With remarks on its picturesque scenery

Fifth Edition

Dedicated to John Thomas Wharton Esq of Skelton

By John Farndale

Late of Skelton Castle Farm

Darlington

Printed by Charles W Hird

1864

(Available through the British Library)

Introduction

When I undertook to write my first “Guide to Saltburn by the Sea and Surrounding Neighbourhood”, I had no thought that I would be called on for a second, a third, or a fourth edition. To meet the wishes of my friends, I have added additional Rambles, Drives, and Rides, an Alphabetical List of Chief Mansions, with their respective distances, and a Supplement treating briefly on the animal, vegetable and mineral aspect of the Cleveland district.

The other day as I rambled in this enchanted district, viewing the lovely scenery, embracing both sea, land, woodland, pleasure grounds and the beautiful sport on which the new town stands, I was moved to sing –

And now I mount above the sands,

And in amazement see

The mighty works that’s carried on

At Saltburn by the Sea.

I thought of the Queen of Sheba, on her visit to Solomon, when she said “It was a sure report I heard in my own land; but behold, the one half was not told me.”

Her majesty Queen Victoria has most graciously accepted my little tribute to Saltburn, and the work is now on the shelves of the Palace of Windsor Castle.

Added are two letters, one from Sir George Grey, and the other from Sir C Phipps, acknowledging the receipt of verses on the marriage of HRH the Price of Wales.

I now present the fifth edition to the world, hoping again to have that charitable kindness as heretofore.

The Author

August 1864

 

Preface

In ushering this humble production before the public, the author begs to say, that he is well aware of his incapacity, as regards possessing scholastic attainments, to do justice to the subject which he would wish. The reader will find, therefore, that he has made no attempt to express his ideas in high flown language; but quite the reverse – as, in the homeliest phrase, he has recorded the events which occurred in his native place, Kilton and the neighbourhood, and which took place when spinning wheels ad woollen wheels were industriously used by every housewife in the district, and long before there were such things in the world as Lucifer match boxes and telegraphs, or locomotives built to run, without horse or bridle, at the astonishing rate of sixty miles an hour!

Should this little production, therefore, be found below mediocrity, the author hopes some better educated person may take up the subject, and treat it in a more able manner.

Some years ago, when churches were more dilapidated than they are now, a worthy Divine was in the habit of placing his sermon, when he entered the pulpit, in a crack in the wall just behind it, for his convenience. One day a wag caught the reverend gentleman placing his sermon in this crack, and unperceived he pushed it in a little further. After reading prayers, the Divine turned to the crack in the wall to get his sermon, when lo! what was his astonishment to find he could not lay hold of it. He looked a little confounded – and still more confounded when again he tried to get his discourse; but all in vain. He therefore colly turned to his congregation, and said, “My dear brethren, I have a good sermon in this crack of the wall if only I could get it out.” In like manner, the author may say, “I have a stock of good ideas in my mind if only I could get them out.” Step, however, into the vehicle, take my first day’s excursion with you, and then return to dine at the new Hotel at Saltburn by the Sea.

JF

 

Saltburn-By-The-Sea

When I attained the age of man,

I took a trip to see

Those fine hard well known golden sands

At Saltburn by the Sea

 

I passed the place where Esk was wrecked,

A sight most sad to me,

When Dunbar and his men lay dead,

Near Saltburn by the Sea

 

The sea was rough, and mountains high,

No storm could greater be,

Near all on board that ship were lost

At Saltburn by the Sea

 

To view the sands then strewed with wreck,

Was a sight most sad to see,

That noble ship, the Esk, broke up

Near Saltburn by the Sea

 

So resolute the night before,

The Captain said he’d be

In Whitby, or far off next day,

Not Saltburn by the Sea

 

Such sights I wish to see no more,

O may they never be;

Such loss of life and ship by storm

Near Saltburn by the Sea.

 

And now I mount above the sands,

And in amazement see

The mighty works now carried on

At Saltburn by the Sea

 

I gazed delighted on the scene,

And found it soon moved me,

To write a book, a little book,

On Saltburn by the Sea.

 

This little book, this book of mine,

I wish you all to see;

O mind you have this little book

On Saltburn by the Sea.

 

This little book, this book of mine,

Will tell where you should be,

To view the lovely scenes around

New Saltburn by the Sea.

 

Then when my race on earth is run,

O may they gather me,

Unto my father’s father’s tomb,

Near Saltburn by the Sea.

 

 

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The Zetland Hotel

Saltburn by the Sea, Yorkshire

 

A Guide to Saltburn-by-the-Sea and Neighbourhood

Part First

Saltburn by the Sea lies about six miles SSE of the well known watering place, Redcar, in Cleveland, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, and stands on the shore of the German Ocean, fronting fine hard sands stretching for miles, and where frequently may be seen three hundred vessels in full sail passing to and fro. The west of this hamlet is bounded by a land “wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack anything in it – a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills though mayst dig brass.”

Long live Messrs Bolcklow & Vaughan, the first high spirited gentlemen, and others also, who by their skill and capital are bringing out resources of this greatly favoured district, and thus giving employment to thousands.

From Saltburn south east there is a fine drive on a fertile ridge of land to towering Huntcliff, where the scenery on all sides is of the most delightful character, where “every prospect pleases”, and the eye may gaze with rapture on a vast expanse of sea, land, woodland and moorland. On this ridge stands the village of Kilton, the author’s birthplace. The picturesque appearance of this place, its antique character, and the great longevity of its inhabitants strike home to my fondest and earliest recollections. I frequently imagine I still hear sounding in my ears the things our father’s fathers told us, and which were done in their day and in the old time before them. The days of ignorance, however, have departed. Our privileges are much greater than our father’s fathers of old enjoyed; and, therefore, as the march of intellect moves on at that rapid pace, more is expected at our hands. Yea, during the last fifty years of Reform has been actively at work, and through the length and breadth of the land Improvement has advanced with rapidity far beyond all preceding times. We can now by telegraph communicate intelligence to all parts of the world – we can breakfast in Edinburgh in the morning, dine in London the same day, and proceed to France. What a contrast to what was done seventy years ago! Men at that time had to grope their way, as it were, in the world – though many persons even then as now rose to eminence and wealth.

 

Kilton Hall as in ages past

Most beautiful to all around,

Ah! ruthless hand that gave command,

And now no trace of it is found.

 

Kilton formerly belonged to the Twings and Lumleys, who were lords of the manor. Dr Waugh, Dean of Carlisle, and Miss Waugh, into whose hands the estate came, sold it to Mrs Wharton, and this lady made a present of it to the late J Wharton, Esq., of Skelton Castle, MP for Beverley, a gentleman of memorable name. Here was built a neat hall, much admired, and when the sun early n the morning cast its beams upon it and lit its vast windows with Nature’s glory, it was a sight to affect the heart and raise the thoughts to the Great Source of all beauty and splendour, both in nature and grace. A spirit of jealousy led to this fine structure being pulled down, and now not one stone on another remains to tell where it once stood, except stables, granaries and coach houses, yet in good preservation. In this township too stands an old Norman Castle. Few ruins in England can vie this venerable relic of Norman architecture. There is also a fortress here, which in the olden times must have been impregnable. This baronial fortress was no doubt the most powerful one in Cleveland, and in the days of cross bows, broad swords, and battle axes it would be quite secure. But when Cromwell, that inveterate foe to all Roman edifices, came near, he heard and was led by the bell at noon, to the opposite mount, levelled his destructive cannon against this structure, and brought it to the ground.

 

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Kilton Hall

Sketched from memory (as it stood in 1795) specially for the Guide, this being the birthplace of the Author

When Cromwell came that way,

He heard the bell at noon;

Fixed his cannon as they say,

And brought the castle down.”

 

Yet, not all – as some still remains, cemented together like iron bound with ivy, for ages to come.

 

All ruins are lovely when o’er them is cast

The green veil of ivy to shadow the past;

When the rent and the chasm fearfully yawned,

By the moss of the lichen are sweetly adorned.

 

When the long grass doth carpet the desolate halls.

And tress have sprung up in the old withered walls,

And woven a curtain of loveliest green,

Where once the rich folds of the damask were seen.

 

But such thoughts are unheeded while idly we gaze,

On the desolate grandeur of earlier days;

‘Tis the wreck that is lovely, the wider the rent

The fuller the view of the landscape is lent.

 

The wind that now sighs through the tenantless hall

No thoughts of loved voices to memory call;

All ruins are lovely when o’er them is cast

The green veil of ivy to shadow the past.”

 

Kilton formerly contained a few tradesmen – namely two joiners, two coopers, two weavers, one butcher, a publican, a water miller, a rag merchant, an old man with nine children, two sailors, and a banker’s cashier. At one time it had four sailors – one was taken prisoner in the French War, an old man, aged 87, and yet living – another, a missionary to the French prisoners, died in France, aged 87, a noble fellow, was formerly in the Life Guards. Seventy years ago Kilton had eight farmers; it now has only one. It had then fifty four children, now only seven – then twenty four parents, now only five – and then nine old men and women rom eighty to one hundred and five years of age. The inhabitants of this village, as may be expected, were long lived; most of the old men were of the giant tribe, their ages averaging at death eighty seven years. My children’s children comprise the sixth generation of our family that has lived at Kilton estate upwards of two hundred years.

In former days the inhabitants of this district were Jacks, and Toms, and Mats; now they are either Misters or Esquires, and thick as mushrooms around us. In those days there were no Mistresses or Ladies among them, they were all Dames – there were no silk gowns, no veils, no crinolines, no bustles; but home spun garments, giving employment to the inhabitants, warmth and comfort to the wearers, and lasting for fifty years. Specimens at home.

Kilton stands unrivalled for its antiquity, and its beautiful scenery cannot be excelled. The brightest and fairest scenes in Italy cannot be compared to the lovely prospects which Nature displays in this secluded part of Cleveland. This place stands on a ridge of rich loomy land, with Huntcliffe on the north, known to all sea-men. On the east is the beautiful bay of Skinningrove and the hall of AC Maynard Esq, formerly the residence of F Easterby Esq. Skinnngrove was once a noted place for smuggling. On the north west is Old Saltburn which was formerly considered the King of the Smuggling World. Near which is New Saltburn, about to become one of the most fashionable sea bathing places on the eastern coast, thanks to the enterprising gentlemen who conduct the railway operations in this neighbourhood, and who are the public’s benefactors, in a commercial, social point of view, and are indeed, in every sense of the word, the friends of the people.

I might go on for ever to dwell on the beautiful scenery around New Saltburn and the interesting associations with it, but I am afraid of trespassing on the forbearance of my readers. The age we now live in is for raking up riches – for there are so many Demas like so living in the world that they have lost all relish for simple details of former times delivered by a grave man like me; but in drawing pubic attention to those hitherto hidden hamlets, dear to every old fashioned Yorkshireman, and which will probably very shortly create more notice, I hope that some ambler pen will take this subject up and do justice in describing this part of the country.

When only four or five years of age I remember my father’s father telling what was done in those days and the old time before them. Many things then told were deemed most important to those of us who then lived together in a state of primitive simplicity, far removed from the occurrences which now surround us. I can refer back to what might have ended in death, but which by over-ruling Providence was otherwise ordered. It was ordained that even to me was given an errand to fulfil, which I am at this time feebly endeavouring to discharge:- namely, to do good in my day and generation.

I remember a draw well stood near the house of my father’s foreman. One day I was looking into this well at the bucket landing, when I fell head foremost. The foreman perceiving the accident, immediately ran to the well to witness, as he thought, the awful spectacle of my last end. I had on at the time a pair of breeches, with brass buckles on my shoes (silver ones were worn by my father and others), and to his great astonishment, he found me not immersed in water at the bottom of the well, but dangling head foremost from the top of a single brass buckle, which had somehow caught hold.

Since this accident I have ever been thankful for my wonderful deliverance, I am now an old man, yet I hope my humble production will by many be found worthy of perusal. I only profess to commit to paper a few thoughts as they spring up in my mind, but what I relate may probably reduce the reader to seek other works for further information; my only wish at present being to draw public attention to this most interesting district in Cleveland, which has hitherto been little known, comparing modern with things in times of old.

Come and see the oddist old men,

Paul, Page and poor auld Willy Swales.

For my life now I dinna ken

Which odd man tells the oddest tales.

I recollect one family named Swales noted for oddness and singularity of manners. When they dined together they all dipped into one dish. The parent once called out for bread, exclaiming “I eat bread to every thing.” A little urchin answered “Now, Fadder, thou lies, thou doesn’t eat bread to cake!” When the old man died, a large multitude gathered at his funeral. He was brought through Kilton to Brotton to be buried, and this youth was noticed last at the grave side, and looking into the grace he at length broke the silence and saudFarewll, fadder!” and a second time he said, “Farewell, fadder!” and a third time, with all his might, making the welkin ring, he exclaimed, “Farewell, fadder!” and then left the graveside with a sad heart and a sorrowful countenance. The end of this rough, untutored fellow was untimely. In an evil hour his cart overturned over him, and two nights and a day he lay dying. The following lines he intended for his tombstone:-

Whea lies here? Whea dye think?

Poor Willy Swales, he loved a drop o’ drink.

Drink to him as you pass by,

For poor Willy Swales was always dry.”

There was another servant of my father’s, named Ralph Page, equally as singular as Willy Swales. As Ralph was once busily ploughing, a French Privateer, threatening land at Skinningrove, fired into the town. Those in the district who had guns assembled on the cliffs and fired a volley in return. To intimidate the enemy the women mustered strong and attired in red cloaks and shouldering sticks, to represent a body of soldiers, they stood far away in the distance. Ralph took little notice of the privateer, not bothering his head either with the French or the English, only they let him be, when a young woman passing in haste, cried out “Ralph, French is landing.”. Ralph, turning round, with the greatest coolness replied, “Then run yam, and sup all’t cream,” and unconcerned he ploughed away as though nothing was the matter.

The next day the king’s cutter arrived, and the privateer and her had an engagement, when the Frenchmen were beaten and the vessel taken, to the great joy of the inhabitants of the surrounding district.

Here let me narrate one anecdote more or a man whom I well knew, and who lived and died at Moorsholm. There was an assize trial at York, about a water course running under ground, and Paul, for that was the man’s name, who was a fine upright fellow, with a high brow and a bluff face, had to appear as a witness on the occasion. When Paul went into the witness box, the counsellor on the opposite side having silenced a man of letters, very promptly said to Paul, as he stared at him, “Well Mr Baconface, and what have you to say on the subject?” “Whya.” Replied Paul, with a significant grin, “If my bacon face and thy calf face were boiled together they wad mak good broth!” The councillor looked abashed, and the whole court roared with laughter. The counsellor recvering his self possession, then tried to put Paul into a fix about the watercourse by inquiring what he knew about it, and in a triumphant tone of voice he said, “And how, my man, do you know that the same water ran out of the course that ran into it?” “How did I know that?” reiterated Paul, “Whya, I tuek care thou sees t’ muddy watter before it went in, and it cam out muddy.” The court enjoyed a hearty laugh, and the result was, the learned councillor lost his cause.

Kilton Hall was a very neat building, with stables, coach houses, lawns and plantations, and the old castle adjoining had a fine bowling green and excellent fish ponds, fed by a rivulet running through a field close by, and which was in a good state of preservation until it was lately filled up and ploughed. Contiguous to the old castle walls there was a fine orchard, which I had the management of about fifty years ago. But this has nearly gone into decay – the towering pear and other fruit trees have become leafless and dead, and withered like an old man ripe from the grave. Such are the changes which a few years make. Thus, it is with inanimate things, so it is with us. We must all fade as a flower, we must all die, for all flesh is grass. “The grass withereth, the flower fadeth, but the word of the Lord endureth for ever”.

Here, let me not forget to notice that, in this enchanting park, rich preserves of game of all kinds, especially that most beautiful bird the pheasant, are numerous, and almost all other game. I have seen rise out from new sown wheat, in my father’s castle field, no less than eighty pheasants at one time. Fifty years later, on my last visit to the old castle, I saw rise out of the same field fifty beautiful pheasant cock, when they soon buried themselves in the vast forest around the old castle. It was here Redman, the poacher’s gun burst and blew out his eye. It was also here Frank, the keeper, shot a large eagle near the old castle, which is now preserved.

The picturesque scenery, however, in this neighbourhood still retains its loveliness, and the late John Wharton, Esq., of Skelton Castle, dd much to improve its beauty. On every side where there was any waste land he planted it with wood to a great extent, and a large number of larches and oaks then planted, I planted with my own hands. On visiting this place lately, what was my astonishment on perceiving that many of these larches were cut and measured fifty cubic feet, while the oaks were in thriving condition and measured twenty four cubic feet. The site of these plantations is delightful, as they are finely sheltered from the piercing north winds.

The scenery of these woodlands, together with the woods of Lady Downs and the Earl of Zetland, appear so truly picturesque from Kilton height that it is utterly impossible for my pen to describe it. Beyond these woodlands rise in view the village of Lofthouse, with the Alum Works, and the seat of the late Sir Robert Dundas. These works are now superintended by William Hunton Esq., an old school fellow of mine. A little further on lies Easington and Boulby Alum Works, conducted by G Westgarth, Esq., a gentleman much respected. Still further, situate on the sea shore, stands the well known fishing village of Staithes, formerly proverbial for the roughness and rudeness of its inhabitants. Though rough, however, they were then as they are now a hardy, kind, and hospitable people, who obtain a living by braving the perils of the great deep. Poor Thrattles, once reckoned the King of Staithes, and who was a good fellow, is now no more, and the place is much changed since bis days. But the reader, perhaps may not care about lingering at Staithes, so we shall take our stand again on Kilton How Hill, from whence may be seen the most delightful scenery in the district.

Camdon, speaking of Kilton and Kilton Old Castle, says – “It is situated in a park belonging to the ancient family of Thwings and Lumleys. Baron Lumley, of Kilton Castle, died in battle, having joined the Earl of Kent and others in the insurrection to restore King Richard, then deposed. Kilton manors, for there were two, became forfeited to the Crown, but restored to the Thwings and Lumleys by Henry the Fourth, and by marriage to William Tulley, Esq., who died at Kilton Hall, and interred in Brotton Chancel, 1741, aged 72 years, his tablet tells, then to Dr Waugh, of Carlisle, and next in kin to Miss Wharton, of Thirsk Hall, a rich old lady, and this lady presented it to her nephew, J Hall Wharton Esq., MP, as a gift, and now it is the property of JT Wharton Esq., Skelton Castle. At the above date Kilton Hall was then a beautiful building, (see plate) much admired. Had two wings, and massive stone pillars to the entrance hall, with its vast windows, coach houses, stables, and pigeon court, yet remaining in good preservation. The coach road lay through the High street, and at that time there were five houses on each side, five on the east, six on the Low0gate – twenty one in number, and the hall, three houses tiled, the rest thatched, and many mud walls. But the hall, a neat specimen of architecture and masonry, was built of free stone. Connected with which was the fish ponds and orchard. At the old castle and until lately, the ponds and bowling green were as perfect as when new, having within two or three years been filled in and ploughed.”

From Kilton How Hill we have a fine view of the German ocean, Skinningrove, Saltburn, Huntcliff, Roe-cliff, Eston Nab, Roseberry Topping, Handle Abbey and Danby beacon. Here, too, at not much distance from each other, may be seen no fewer than five beacons, formerly provided with barrels of tar to give the necessary alarm to the people if Buonaparte at that period had dared to invade our peaceful shores. After the great battle of Waterloo, and Buonaparte had been taken prisoner, that glorious event was celebrated at Brotton by parading his effigy through the street and burning it before Mr R Stephenson’s hall, amidst the rejoicings of high and low, rich and poor, who drank and danced to the late hour. The author formed one of a band of musicians that played on the occasion, and he composed a song commemorating the event, which became very popular in that part of the country. Brotton bever before or since saw the like of that memorable day.

On the right of Kilton is the seat of John Thomas Wharton Esq., of Skelton Castle, and formerly the seat of the late John Wharton Esq., of blessed memory, and many years member of parliament for Beverley. The present Skelton Castle, comparatively speaking, is a modern structure. Nothing now, it is said, remains of the castle in the olden time, nor of the baronial fortress of De Brus. A writer speaking on this subject says. That “It was built about 1140, and was a beautiful specimen of antiquity and picturesque loveliness, being nearly surrounded by a deep glen, finely wooded.” In the year 1783, the whole of this beautiful edifice was pulled down, and in its stead, the present castle was erected; but though it may not be thought equal in splendour and beauty to its ancient predecessor, yet standing, as it does, in the centre of sylvan landscapes, which scarcely can be surpassed for loveliness, and being associated with recollections of the chivalrous achievements and illustrious history of the De Bruces, who resided here many years after the Norman conquest, this castle and its environs will always be looked upon with more than usual interest by the antiquarian and the tourist. The present possessor of this large and ancient domain being fond of agricultural pursuits, has been indefatigable in improving the property since he came into possession of it, and no gentleman could have done more than he has towards making the poor of the district comfortable by alloting them portions of land and building them more commodious abodes.

Reminiscence of Skelton Castle

I ask, may I compose I line?

Most proud indeed I’d be,

Where Kings and Queens, and noble men

Those merry days had seen.

 

The brave De Brus, the Fauconberg,

Vast numbers yet beside,

Conyers, Trotters, Whartons, Halls,

That once did here abide.

 

And I’ve been there, and gone again,

And yet another time,

Where Kings and Queens made merry days,

And so it was with mine.

 

There’s many a giant noble mind,

Like pearls in gold, not seen,

That only wants the wedge thin edge

To tell us where they’d been.

 

Our late dear squire we did admire,

His heart would melt and soar;

He left this pile, he went awhile,

We never saw him more.

 

Oh, had he known those fields of stone

That Cleveland hils have risen,

He’d never sigh’d or pined away

Those long dark years in prison.

 

His castle yet, this noble pile,

Stands bright and fresh as ever;

So let it stand, and grace tis land,

And change its name – no never.

 

Beyond the castle of Skelton lie the ruins of Guisbro’ Abbey, Guisbro’ Alum Works, the seat of Captain Chaloner, of Long Hull Hall; Upleatham Hall, the seat of the Earl of Zetland, Lord Lieutenant of the county, and Grand Master of the Masonic Lodges of all England; also Kirkleatham Hall, with its far famed Hospital, the seat of the Honourable Mrs Newcomen, formerly the residence of Sir Charles Turner, and one of the most beautiful places in the world. Further is the well known watering place, Redcar, and between is modest Marske, which has recently been rising into importance, where stands the seat of HW Yeoman, Esq., formerly the seat of the Honourable Lord Dundas, a name ever to be remembered.

Two or three hundred yards from Marske, commanding a most beautiful view of the broad ocean, appears the residence of Joseph Pease, Esq. This elegant structure, with its lofty turrets, stands on the summit of one of the hills which ascend here from the shore of the German ocean, where the sands, both smooth and hard, stretch for miles, and where there are a few sea bathing machines and every convenience for that healthful exercise. In front of this mansion there is an extensive terrace, displaying on each side a profusion of beautiful shrubs and flowers, which, in the summer months, shed a pleasing fragrance around. A more delightful residence cannot be conceived. Long may the kind owner of this delightful retreat live to enjoy it. Mr Joseph Pearse has long since earned for himself a good name and independence. He is a friend and a friend indeed, and as a useful member of Society, as an active and intelligent worker for the benefit of the public at large, and lastly, as a worthy man, whose acts of charity have done much to lessen the amount of human suffering, is name will be handed down from generation to generation with every mark of honour and respect.

On the north of Kilton may be seen gigantic Huntcliff rearing its hoary summit towards the clouds, and to the south rises majestic Freebro’, 500 feet high, of a beautiful pyramid shape. A few years ago, near to this hill, one of the most tragic scenes ever enacted took place. A young mother, shocking to relate, deliberately took the life of her own son, only three years of age. She murdered the poor innocent in broad daylight, and afterwards quartered him in the most barbarous manner, for which she was tried and deservedly transported for life. From this noted hill you have in view an area of ten square miles, and as you gaze on the woodlands and varied fields below, the whole appears like a beautiful picture of patchwork, on which the eye may dwell with the most pleasant sensations.

Art hath charms most attractive; but Nature displays

The wonderful woods of the Ancient of Days;

Those hills from the world’s foundation have stood,

Midst the tempest of storm and the deluging flood;

And there shall they stand unapproach’d by decay

When the proud works of art shall have faded away:

Till the last glorious sun shall illumine the sky,

And beneath their huge piles in oblivion shall lie.

Yes! those hills we now view shall relapse at the sound

When the Archangel’s trump through the earth shall rebound;

Then bow their high heels, shiver, crumble, and fall,

Midst Creation’s greatest consummation of all.”

We now with much pleasure return to Saltburn by the Sea, where we again view the broad expanse of the ocean, with its ever restless waves rolling towards the shore. Here stands the conic hill, Cat Neb, where formerly many ship loads of contraband goods, of every description, were landed. Round this hill my father used annually to bring thousands of corf rods to ship for the coal pits in the north, where they are not now used. What activity there was then at this place, when a vessel lay on the beach to be loaded with rods, which were brought to the seaside in waggons accompanied by eight or ten men, under the superintendence of my father, William Farndale, well known to John Wharton Esq., who by the sale of these rods received many hundreds of pounds.

To the geologist and curious both Saltburn and Huntcliff offer great attractions. The latter place is one of the boldest and highest promontories on the east coast, where the cormorant, the gull, and other sea birds, in their cloud-caped habitations, unmolested breed in vast numbers, unless scared away from their airy homes by some adventurous sportsmen, when he awokes the echoes of the rocks by the rude report of his deadly weapon.

How often here on a fine summer’s eve have I strolled to this most retired and enchanting retreat, Huntcliff, with my gun, to enjoy a sport of shooting the sea bird darting up the cliff over-head; an advantageous sport, when an ordinary marksman need not fail to bag a brace or two. This retreat was part of my Huntley Hall farm, and is only a short drive from Saltburn-by-the-Sea. And on this retired place have passed many hundred horse loads of smuggled goods; this was the private road of old. I do not know any place equal for such an extensive view (if you step up to the beacon above) of sea and land. Here you stand 150 yards above the level of the sea, and here you stretch your eye on the German ocean from Whitby to Tynemouth, Sunderland and Hartlepool; and you can here view the counties of Durham, Westmoreland, and the Yorkshire hills; both sea and land are most interesting with a glass. From this hill you look down on the dark blue ocean below and you see a fleet of ships far and near, so near below you as to believe them sporting on those dangerous rocks, when again they reach away majestically, and you can hear and see the jolly tars, merrily employed in their dangerous seafaring life, shifting sail and mainsail, on the great dee below. You here stand on this mountain ridge apparently safe rom danger, yet danger is always near: even here I have suffered loss of stock. Once a fine colt somehow trespassed near the cliff, and fearful to say it bounced down this awful precipice twenty yards from the base below, its bowels gushing out yards beyond. On these rocks how many a seaman has found a watery grave, and many a fine ship has been wrecked.

At present Saltburn-by-the-Sea, as a watering place, is only in embryo; but the natural advantages it possesses for sea bathing, and the beautiful scenery in its immediate environs, will, no doubt, by the united energy and enterprising spirit of the gentlemen who form the “Saltburn Improvement Company”, continue to render it superior to most of the watering places in the north, particularly as it is now favoured with a railway communication to all parts of Great Britain. In furtherance of this important undertaking, the Company alluded to are now offering for sale a number of freehold building sites, in suitable lots for villas, dwelling houses, and cottages, presenting a desirable investment to builders and capitalists. Already the hand of improvement has effected a revolution at this place. To make it in every way attractive, a large amount of money has been expended; spacious terraces, with winding walks, and pleasure grounds most beautiful, are now formed, besides a magnificent hotel, built at a cost of £31,000, a similar structure to those on the esplanade at Scrabro’; a beautiful block of buildings is proposed to be erected – the plans of which are exhibited – for the magnificent suite of Assembly Rooms, which will cost another £20,000 or £30,000. It is not, therefore, extravagant to suppose, that in a short period Saltburn-by-the-Sea will be made to eclipse in comfort and beauty many of those fashionable places of resort to which many thousands now flock in the bathing season. Within the last thirty years West Hartlepool, with its extensive docks and shipping, and its 15,000 inhabitants, has risen into mercantile importance – Middlesbro’, too, with its numerous iron works, its blazing furnaces, and its 20,000 inhabitants, has become in equally as short a period a hive of industry, trade, and commerce – then why, I ask, may not Saltburn-on-the-Sea, with its wide spreading sands, its romantic scenery, and its healthful position, this soon become the favourite resort of the invalid and the ELITE in the fashionable world?

In imagination even now I see its splendid hotels forming a crescent above Old Saltburn – I see an extensive terrace in front, and gravel walks winding along the brow of the hill – I see handsome streets springing into existence, new roads forming for drives through the surrounding beautiful vales – and I see groups of gay visitors, in all directions, promenading the sands, and the walks, and the terrace, as though the place had become as it were a second Scarbro’. But away with these imaginings – the sun I perceive is now sinking beyond the spreading woods of Upleatham, the “glimmering landscape” is fading on the view, so we shall now rest until another day, bearing in mind the following beautiful lines of the poet:-

Tired Nature’s sweet restorer, balmy sleep,

He like the world his ready visit pays

Where fortune smiles: the wretched he forsakes,

Swift on his downy pinions flies from woe,

And lights on lids unsullied with a tear.”

 

Part Second

Awake, salute the happy morn,

Arise with healthful glee,

And joyful walk the golden sands

At Saltburn by the Sea

 

Here you for miles may stretch your eye

Where rippling waves roll free,

And stately ships are passing by

New Saltburn by the Sea

 

These sands no human hands require,

So hard, so smooth they be,

None such as those from Redcar rocks

To Saltburn by the Sea

 

How good, how great, how infinite

The three-one Deity,

Who made the heavens, the sea, the earth,

That man their lord should be.

 

O can you view the heavens above,

The ocean’s face, the flowery lea,

And not admire the Maker’s skill

At Saltburn by the Sea.

 

Pray now retrace your wandering steps,

To dinner take or tea,

Inhale the breeze as you return

To Saltburn by the Sea

 

The table spread at the Hotel

How happy you will be,

When every dainty you can have

At Saltburn by the Sea

 

Scorn not the bard of humble worth

Though feeble be his lays

He vies not with the great on earth,

Nor seeks to court their praise.

 

He asks no fame, no monument,

To mark his final home,

For nobler bards alone deserve

A monumental stone.

 

At the conclusion of the previous part I have given an imaginative sketch of what I conceive New Saltburn may become in a few years. Some of my readers may think he too sanguine in my views on this point; but when the magnificent position of this place is considered, together with the fact that it is now in the hands of the enterprising gentlemen who have formed to Saltburn Improvement Society, and who have both the capital and the energy to carry out their objects, I can come to no other conclusion, than, as a first rate sea bathing place, it will soon rise into importance and become a favourite resort of the public.

At present the hand of industry is busily engaged at New Saltburn. Hundreds of labourers of various descriptions, are daily employed erecting buildings, cutting new walks, forming rural seats and grottos, and carrying out the plans of the projectors. The “Zetland Hotel”, to which I previously alluded, being now completed, stands on a lofty aclivity, about one hundred yards from the sea shore, with a broad carriage road in front, and commands on the left a most magnificent view of the broad ocean, the bold rocky headlands of Huntcliff, Roecliff, and Boulby in front, and on the right the picturesque woodland scenery in the ravine or dell on whose lofty banks it is situated, and which extend to the retired village of Skelton, a distance of about two miles. The northern extremity of these banks is now the property of the Saltburn Improvement Society, and here a variety of winding walks have already been formed, where the eye of the visitor may delight to dwell on a wide expanse of ocean, the boldest coast scenery, the innumerable hills and vales, presenting altogether a delightful prospect. The walks here are so arranged to lead to an extensive piece of ground, which the Company have laid out in pleasure gardens; laid out in a style that tend to enhance the enjoyment of the rambler in this terrestrial paradise. The noble wood to the south of these gardens is at present the property of the Earl of Zetland. This wood extends for some miles along the banks of the vale, and it contains numberless trees, the growth of centuries. Running through the middle of it is a pleasant walk, which the Earl of Zetland, with a liberality that does him infinite credit, has granted the visitors at New Saltburn full permission to enjoy. Newly erected, on the opposite side, is Bell’s beautiful hall, Rush Pool.

The terminus of the Stockton and Darlington railway at New Saltburn is at the back of the hotel. Here a splendid station is erected. It is more than 300 feet in length, with extensive waiting rooms, and is a most elegant structure. On each side of the railway a number of streets are projected, with a parade ground, and a spacious terrace, commanding a fine prospect of the German ocean and the adjacent country. Some of these streets to the east of the railway are now erected. About thirty houses, three stories high. Some flagged in front, with spacious shops, having plate glass windows, have already been built, and others are advancing towards completion, so that Saltburn by the Sea already begins to assume the appearance of a town. The houses have an elegant appearance, as they are built of fire bricks from Pearse’s West, and appear to be quite in keeping with the elegance of the new Railway Station and the Hotel.

A writer of an article headed “A Day Out”, and which appeared some time ago in a provincial paper, speaking of Saltburn on the Sea, says, “Although, at present, it is like Paddy’s fortune, ‘an sure all to come yet’, nevertheless the site chosen is one of the most beautiful of Nature’s pictures of marine and inland painting the eye can imagine.”

I think there cannot be a question respecting the judgement displayed in the selection by the promoters, and as little doubt of the success of the enterprise, if they only display equal discretion in embellishing, for unquestionably there stares them in the face this admonishment – Beware of spoiling nature. They must not attempt to do too much; nor interfere with Nature’s arrangements, but simply make good her few, her very few shortcomings. If not, they will surely spoil one of the most lovely spots on earth for human recreation and health – security. Let the doctors talk as they may about their tonics and restoratives, there cannot be a doubt that at this place Nature has thrown her immutable tonic – pure air – broad-cast.

At the foot of the steep aclivity on which New Saltburn stands, runs a small rivulet, called Skelton Beck, and two or three hundred yards further to the south east appears Old Saltburn, described by Mr Ord, in his History of Cleveland, as situated “UPON the sea and UNDER a mountain,” and certainly a more isolated, strange, and desolate looking place to build on cannot be conceived; yet, strange to say, Old Saltburn, in former days, was a thriving fishing and smuggling place. At that time it exported and imported merchandise of all kinds. It then contained two public houses, and many a gin shop where a glass of real unadulterated Geneva could be had for a penny. Here a large and profitable contraband trade was carried on, the principal articles smuggled being Hollands gin, rum, brandy, silks, tea, tobacco &c, and most of the business in this line was carried on between sun set and day break, during which time many a cart load of smuggled goods got clear off and was soon “over the hills and far away”. Every man in the place then had a private vault, where his smuggled goods were stowed away, and there was not then throughout Christendom a happier, a braver, and a merrier set of fellows than the fishermen and lawless smugglers of Old Saltburn.

King Saltburn

Old King Saltburn, dear old Saltburn;

When a boy I remember his glee.

When high in the valley he stood –

What a jolly fine fellow was he!

 

Now his head has become quite hoary,

And bis face is more placid you see,

Rise up, then, and thin of the past.

What a jolly old fellow was he!

 

In his first born son he is honoured,

No doubt a great prince he will be,

If he walks in the steps of his sire.

He’ll be jolly and merry as he!

 

The oldest Saltburnian living,

Could never have r=dreamt it could be,

That such a great prince could be born

To a jolly good fellow as he!

 

Old King Saltburn, dear old Saltburn!

How long in the valley is he,

Could he tell us his merry exploits

What a jolly good fellow he’d be!

 

Farewell then, old Saltburn, dear Saltburn,

When a boy I remember thy glee –

Now welcome, thrice welcome, thy son,

What a promising fellow is he!

 

Some years ago Old Saltburn imported lime, lime stones, and coal, and also exported oak timber, prop wood, corf rods, alum and corn. It had a coal yard and lime kilns, and there was a large alum house near Cat Neb. My grandfather, who was a Kiltonian, employed many men at this alum house, and many a merry tale I have heard him tell of smugglers and their daring adventures and hair breadth escapes. The lime kilns and coal yard were kept by old Mr William Cooper, whose sloop, “The Two Brothers”, was continually employed in the coasting trade. Behind the alum house, Thomas Hutchinson, Esq., late of Brotton House, made an easy carriage road from Saltburn to that place, which road will always be a lasting monument to his memory.

In former days, there were frequently seen lying before Old Saltburn three luggers at a time, all laden with contraband goods, and the song of the crews used to be:-

If we should to the Scottish coast hie

We’ll make Captain Ogleby, the king’s cutter, fly

The government, however, being determined to put a stop to this nefarious traffic, a party of coast guards, with their cullasses, swords, spy glasses, and dark lanterns, were sent to the Blue House, at Old Saltburn. This came like a thunderbolt upon the astonished Saltburnians. They made, however, two more efforts to continue the trade – one proved successful, the other not.

The last lugger but one bound to Saltburn was chased by the King’s cutter, and running aground at Marske, she was taken by the coast guard, and all the crew were made prisoners, and put into the lock up. While the coast guard were busy enjoying their prize, all the prisoners escaped except one, who was found in Hazlegrip, and whom the King’s officers sadly cut up. Lord Dundas, of Marske Hall, threatened to bring them to justice if the man died.

The last luggar that appeared on the coast was successful in delivering her cargo. Two of the crew, fierce lion-looking fellows, landed, and they succeeded in capturing wo of the coast guard, whom they marched to the other wide of Cat Neb, where they stood guard over them till the vessel got delivered. While these jolly smugglers had the two men in custody, they sent to the lugger for a keg of real Geneva, and at the point of the sword they compelled the poor fellows to drink of that which was not the King’s portion. After releasing their prisoners, and then telling them to go home, the smugglers returned to their vessel, setting sail, they left the beach with light hearts and a fair breeze.

Since the merry days alluded to the glory of Old Saltburn has departed – its smuggling days have passed away – its gin vaults have disappeared – and the gay roysterers who were wont to make Cat Neb and the adjacent rocks resound with laughter, now rest in peace beneath the green hillocks in the retired grave yards of Brotton and Skelton.

A Reminiscence

Not long since, one bright summer morn

Near the vale of my birth did I roam,

And I thought of the long life I’d spent,

And I sighed that I ever eft home.

 

On the steep rock of Huntcliff I stood,

Wash’d below by the ocean’s white foam,

And a voice seemed to whisper to me

O why did you ever leave home?

 

Near yonder sweet vale I once lived,

Lived happy beneath my old dome,

What changes since then have I met –

O why did I ever leave home?

 

The friends of my youth are all gone,

No more in these valleys to roam;

In the grave yard of Brotton they rest –

Oh why did I ever leave home?

 

Lay me there by those I once loved,

When Death to my old frame shall come

And my spirit seraphic shall mount

To its last and best happy home.

 

Of late years many buildings of Old Saltburn have fallen beneath the ruthless hand of Time, and all that remain ow are two or three humble looking cottages, with a respectable inn, possessing good accommodation, the fair hostess being a grand daughter of the well known and worthy huntsman, Mr John Andrews, sen.,, one of the most ardent admirers of the sports of the field in that fox hunting locality. In old Mrs Johnson’s days this inn was noted for furnishing visitors with what were termed “fat rascals” and tea, a delicious kind of cake stuffed with currants, and which the present obliging hostess, Mrs Temple, who is an adept ion the culinary art, can make so as to satisfy the most fastidious palate.

But let us return to New Saltburn. I remember some years ago being at Edinbro’ when our beloved Queen first visited that city. Being an early riser, her Majesty was on her way to that place soon in the morning, and the provost and other civic authorities having laid so long had scarcely time to meet and present her with the keys of the city, a ceremony usually observed on such occasions. I still have a vivid remembrance of the festive rejoicings that took place at “Auld Reekie”, on the occasion of her Majesty honouring it with a visit. While there Her Majesty took up her abode at Holyrood Palace. It was her practice every morning during her stay to take a private walk in the suburbs. One morning she met an old Scotch woman advancing towards the Palace to offer poultry and eggs for sale, which she carried in a basket. Her Majesty stopped her, and, ascertaining the price of the articles, she bought the whole, to the great astonishment of the old dame, asking herm, at the same time,. If she ever tried to ell her produce at the Palace. The old woman replied in the affirmative, and added, “And unco weel they knaw how to mak a gude bargain! Bless ye, a puir body like me may well try t’ get bluid fra a post as try t’ get muckle from them.” Her Majesty smiling then slipped a sovereign into her hand, when the old dame exclaimed, “Aw canna brake this in twa, as I hae na got either sixpence or bawbee!” “Never mind,” said her Majesty, “keep the whole”. The old woman glad to meet with so generous a customer, then warmly thanked the Queen, and inquired where she was to take the articles. “Take them to the Palace,” was the answer, “and say her Majesty has bought them.” On amazement, and lifting her hands she exclaimed, “Bless me, bless me, wha wad a’ thought it, and are ye MISSIS Albert?”

Now, when a poor old Scotch woman could thus accident tally meet our gracious Sovereign and be honoured with her approving smile, who knows but in a short time the Prince of Wales, or even the Queen herself, may be induced to pay Saltburn by the Sea a visit, and the magnificent Hotel may become the temporary abode of royalty?

In addition to the beautiful walks in the immediate vicinity of New Saltburn, the adjacent country for miles round presents the most delightful rambles and drives for the visitor, where the roads are good, with no turnpike gates, and through a district which abounds with romantic scenery, villages, and hamlets, all possessing a distinctive an interesting character. The most suitable parts of the district for rambles, for rides, and for drives, are as follows :-

A List of Twelve Rambles

Rambles from Saltburn and District

First Ramble

ON FOOT – From New to Old Saltburn, ¼ mile – thence to Huntcliff, 1 ¼ mile – to Brotton, 1 mile – to Kilton Castle, ½ mile – thence to Skelton, 3 ½ miles – through the Zetland Wood to Saltburn by the Sea, 2 miles, Total – 9 1.2 miles.

The above forms a charming ramble, for most of the way a delightful view of both ocean and the country, particularly on the craggy summit of Huntcliff, which here extends about a mile and rises perpendicular 600 or 800 feet above the level of the sea. In the distance rises Danby Hill, 966 feet, and the far famed Roseberry Topping, 1022 feet above the level of the sea. From these hills may be seen, by the aid of a spy glass, on a clear day, Shields, Tynemouth, Cumberland, Westmoreland, and the Cheviot Hills, a distance of eighty miles. The Cleveland Hills in general are richly stored with ironstone, freestone, whinstone, limestone, alum strata, marbled jet, and amongst these have been picked many beautiful specimens of agate, jasper, jasper agate, mocha, chalcedony, carmelian, onyx and flint variegated like Egyptian agates.

Few parts of the globe can vie with this and the adjoining districts of Cleveland in respect to the number, the variety, and the beauty of the fossils. Most of the hills teem with the remains of animals and vegetables belonging to a former world. They occur in almost every stratum – the aluminious schistus abounds with petrifactions, particular bones, and testaceous substances. The fossil bones are chiefly those of large fishes and amphibious animals, some belonging to quadrupeds of large size, of the crocodile or alligator tribe, and others displaying fragments of bones belonging to an animal much larger than a horse.

Brotton in this ramble is a retired village, with a very neat church, pleasantly situated, from the church yard of which there is a lovely prospect of the vale of Guisbro’ and the fine bay of Skinningrove.

There is a valuable communion service in silver and gold in this church, presented by one of the Tulleys, and two or three fine marble tablets decorate the walls. Tindale, the sexton here, an obliging person, is ever ready to show any visitor the interior.

Kilton is a small village, but the vale in which it stands abounds with woodland scenery. At a short distance stands the remains of the old castle of Kilton, which once belonged to the Thwings, where centuries ago there were no doubt great doings; but time here has wrought vast changes, and the history of this once important stronghold is ow nearly buried in oblivion.

From the ruins of the castle there is a fine view of the vast forest in which it stands, with the river crawling through blocks of huge stones till it reaches the sea at Skinningrove. Here I remember planting, fifty years ago, the first trees near the old castle walls, and they are now as lofty as their sires two hundred years old. Here as I stand how reflection crowds my mind. There is no corner of this wood unknown to me. I have traversed it a thousand times when a boy. I have captured in it the owl, the crow, the cushat, the hawk, the cuckoo, and every other forest bird, and also the squirrel, the weasel, the foumart, the badger, the snake and the fox. How often I have heard the retreat of the huntsman’s horn, like Joab at the death of Absolom, and how exulted when three cheers proclaimed the death of poor Reynard. I remember once the fox hard run by the Cleveland and Roxby hounds, and he took refuge between the old castle walls and the ivy creeping between. Here he kept safe till the hounds came up, when he boldly bounced in the very face of his enemies, and was soon overcome. Mr J Codling, of Roxby, caught him yet alive, and brushed him in the presence of Consett Dryden Esq., myself and a few others, and we made the wood resound with three cheers.

Here in the spring time when Nature is bursting into new life and beauty, and every hill is carpeted with wild flowers, when the feathered choir sing in joyful and delightful concert, and the busy bee with its drony tone passes and repasses, how sweety it is to stand and admire the skill and muse the praise of Him who brought them into being.

Kilton Woods

Here blooming flowers, with fragrant lips,

Sweet pleasure gives to me,

While happy birds with gladsome voice

Now flirt from tree to tree.

 

The river as it onward flows

Its pleasant winding way,

Sings with smiles of calm content

Its message day by day.

 

On mountain high and valley low

The voice of God I hear,

And by the sea, the rippling sea,

I ever feel him near.

 

I gaze upon the silent night

And in the heavens above,

And in golden letters, clear and bright,

The stars sing God is love.

 

The cuckoo with her well known voice,

Sings ever as she flies,

And joyful tidings brings to all,

She never tells us lies.

 

She sucks the eggs of other birds,

Which makes her voice more clear;

And when she sings, gay spring is come

And summer’s drawing near.

 

Petrifying springs, depositing carbonate of lime, abound in this locality. Amongst the most remarkable may be noticed a spring in Kilton Wood, a little to the south of the castle, and a remarkable sulphurous spring, which issues from the aluminous schistus on the banks of the beck near Kilton Mill. One gallon of water of this spring was found to be seventy two garins heavier than a gallon of distilled water. In the immediate vicinity of Kilton Castle there is also another petrifying spring, depositing carbonate of lime.

Skelton, a considerable village, is included in this ramble, and it is well worthy of a visit, as it has been the birthplace of a long list of illustrious warriors, princes, kings and queens, and consequently it is connected with associations of the most interesting character. It once was a market town, its markets being held on Sundays. Like the vale of Kilton, the country here abounds with woodland scenery, particularly towards the north, where the umbrageous woods, the property of the Earl of Zetland and JT Wharton Esq., ascend to a great height on either side of Skelton Beck, which flows through them to New Saltburn, where it enters the ocean.

Skelton Castle, with its highly cultivated pleasure grounds, and the picturesque sheet of water half encircling it, stands on a gentle slope, about a quarter of a mile from the village, contiguous to the carriage road leading from that place to Marske. On reaching Skelton Mill, at the bottom of the vale here, the rambler should enter the Zetland Woods, through which he will find a pleasant pathway to the grounds at Saltburn-by-the-Sea.

Soon after the Norman Conquest the baronial castles and fortresses in this part of the country were numerous, and the most important was the old castle of Skelton, built about the year 1140, and of which there is not a single trace. Most of the other castles in the district are now ruins, strongly showing the instability of human handiwork. Amongst these Dany Castle still remains. This ancient relic of the past once belonged to Lord John Latimer, whose wife, Catharine Parr, resided here, and who was afterwards the last queen of that monster in human shape, Henry the Eighth. To the antiquarian Cleveland must be ever interesting, as almost every hill and valet in its displays the marks of warlike exploits in a barbarous age. Traces of burial grounds, pits, moats, encampments, forts, and military roads abound through the length and breadth of the extensive district ranging from Skelton to Whitby.

Second Ramble

ON FOOT – From New Saltburn along by the Sands to Marske, passing the marine residence of Joseph Pearse, Esq., 2 miles – thence to Upleatham Hall, 2 miles – thence to the Mins, 1 mile – return by Hob Hill to New Saltburn by the Sea, 2 ½ miles. Total 7 ½ miles.

Marske in this ramble is a beautiful improving village of one street, containing some shops and many respectable looking houses. In consequence of the iron mines in the adjacent hills, its population has lately much increased. The wages spent by the miners who reside at this place, amount to a good round sum weekly. The church, which was built in 1821, stands a little distance from the village, and its fine lofty spire is a conspicuous mark for seamen. Here rest the mortal remains of the father and other relations of the immortal Captain Cook. A Mechanics Institute has for some years been successfully carried on here in the school room, where there is a good library connected with it. The foundation stone for a handsome new building for this Institute was lately laid by A Pease, Esq. There is likewise a Cottage Hospital at this place, which is certainly worthy of inspection. A writer, speaking of this hospital, says – “This is truly a novelty in agricultural districts, if not in others; and for unassuming perfection, will exceed the visits expectation greatly. I had previously seen metropolitan and other institutions of the kind, but for the appearance of home, and perfect adaptation to its requirements, give me Marske Cottage Hospital, with its tidy accomplished nurse. A four roomed cottage, well aired, well ventilated, and scrupulously clean – almost to a fault – has been appropriated to the benevolent purpose of receiving the injured miners belonging to the Upleatham mines. Upon entering the first apartment, I found a remarkably cheerful and airy room, with two beds, bath &c. One of the beds contained a poor man, whose leg had been amputated a few days before. Nothing was left to be desired. His happy, placid countenance testified that he was “doing well”, and his admission that he had “fallen into good hands” bore ample evidence of his confidence in the surgeon. The nurse kindly afforded me an opportunity of seeing the whole arrangements. In an adjoining room, on the ground floor, were two other beds – happily occupied, and upstairs the nurse’s private apartment. Here, in addition to every consideration to her comfort, I found a complete set of surgical instruments – amputation and others – of the most costly description. Upon inquiry, my surprise was equal to my previous pleasure, to find that for the origin and entire support of this very benevolent institution, the working men of the Upleatham mines are indebted to Messrs. Pearse, the lessees. “Honour to whom honour id due”, and in justice it ought to be accorded here, for the care experience in behalf of their workmen appears the more praiseworthy, when placed in juxta-position with that of other proprietors within “hearing of Bow bells.”

Upleatham

Sloped with graceful ease

Hanging enraptured o’er the winding Tees,”

Is also a pretty picturesque village, surrounded by magnificent sylvan scenery, that cannot be surpassed for beauty. On the north side of the declivity of the range of hills on which the village stands, are the spacious iron mines belonging to Joseph Pearse, Esq., and which are now in full operation, employing a large number of hands. The mines are particularly worthy of inspection of the visitor. Upleatham Hall, the seat of the Earl of Zetland, stands south west of the village, and is a modern structure, commanding a beautiful prospect, and from the rising grounds there is a fine view of Skelton Castle.

Third Ramble

ON FOOT – From New to Old Saltburn, ¼ mile, thence to Trout Hall. 2 ½ miles – to Airy Hill, by Skelton Green, 1 mile – return by Skelton and Bell’s Hall, at Marske Mill, to the pleasure grounds, 2 ½ miles. Total 7 ½ miles.

In this ramble are fine views of Brotton Hall, Trout Hall, Airy Hill, Skelton Castle, Upleatham, Guisbro’ Abbey, Kirkleatham, Redcar, Hartlepool, Freebro’ Hill, Roseberry Topping, Huntcliff, Roecliff, Lofthouse, Easington, Stangho, Liverton, and Moorsholm; also the Chevoit and other hills, from Huntcliff.

Fourth Ramble

ON FOOT – From New to Old Saltburn, ½ mile – thence to Huntcliff Foot, 1 ileSkinningrove, by Cattersty Creek, 1 ½ mile – Allum Works, 1 mile – return by Skinngrove, 1 mile – Brotton, 1 mile – Saltburn by the Sea, 2 ¼ miles. Total 8 ¼ miles.

You should not forget those rocks on which iron stone was shipped to Middlesbro’ prior to the Eston mines. Here also abound many kinds of marine animals, and sea-weed, under which breed vast millions of shell-fish, and, as you walk along, you destroy many thousands crackling under foot; there are frequently seen numerous seals or sea-calves basking in the sun.

Among ponderous blocks of freestone falling from the cliff, fearful to behold, (when a ship founders here in high water, there is no way to escape) there are many fine specimens of stone you may find, until you arrive at Cattersty Creek, once famous for the delivery of Geneva ships – numbers have delivered their cargoes here. The last I remember was when Tom Wesbter, of Brotton, fell down dead while carrying a tub of Geneva up this creek.

Next is Skinningrove, second to none for the contraband trade, and here, Paul Jones, the pirate, threatened to land, and the tale is of the seaman caught, confined, but made his escape to sea. This tale is still extant. Forget not the Alum House, return by the cliff, the beacon, by Huntcliff, safe home, and this ramble for varied interest can scarcely be excelled. Total 6 miles.

Fifth Ramble

ON FOOT – Through the Pleasure Grounds to Skelton Mill, 2 miles – Upleatham, 1 mile – Mines, ½ mile – return by Brawshawe or Hobhill, 1 ½ miles, to Satlburn by the Sea. Total 5 miles.

In this delightful ramble, you enter the Company’s Pleasure Grounds, furnished with booths, grottos, walks, shrubs,. Flowers, and evergreens, exquisitely arranged, in that most retired and pleasant Eden. It was here, in the time of the French War, when Napoleon the First wished to land his legions on our shores, a regiment of soldiers were encamped, called the white-coated regiment, (Abraham Wood, one of these soldiers, in after years became my drill sergeant). It was well for us we had a Nelson, a Wellington, and other heroes; but ow in this place no one dares make you afraid.

All hail! ye blessed friends of peace,

Peace to us has been restored

See the fruits of peace abounding

For ever be the Prince of peace ador’d.

You proceed through Lord Zetland’s wood, and gaze on huge oaks, towering high for centuries, up as far as Skelton Mill, and on your route you hear the sweet feathered songster on each side of the rivulet, which goes meandering down to the ocean at Saltburn by the Sea; also that sweet fragrance of forest life to delight your pathway. As you rise the Upleatham height, and gaze on that expansive view of sea and land, underneath are hundreds of miners, raising the rich ore of iron-stone, the property of the Earl of Zetland, and now in the hands of Joseph Pearse, Esq., of Marske Hall. Here you have a view of sea and land, hil and dale, so great and extensive as to be second to none.

Upleatham is thus notice by Dr Granville, in his northern tour :- “I was now in the vicinity of Redcar, which enjoys a local reputation as a sea bathing place, for its singularly beautiful sands; thither I proceed, calling in my way at Upleatham, the seat of the Earl of Zetland, whom, to my regret, I found absent on the Continent. Tranquil retreat, sheltered on the east by vast plantations, and placed in one of these lovely dales which the swell and lesser hills of the Cleveland range form; in the neighbourhood of Roseberry Topping, that lofty peak, sacred to minstrelsy and witchery, recalls to mind the days of its chivalrous and successive lords, the valiant Earl of Northumberland, Robert de Bruce, and Lord Falconby. M Ord tells us, ‘here the lamented Duke of Sussex was a frequent guest of the noble proprietor, and expressed in the warmest terms his admiration of its beauty and retirement.’ ” Then we have Marske and Marske Hall, south east of Redcar. Dr Granville remarks of this building – “This ancient and insulated hall, which, from its external appearance, bespeaks the time of Charles I, and which has often resounded with the noble name of Dundas, stands near. A short way south of Redcar, to which a drive on sands as smooth as velvet, yet so firm that neither man nor horse leave their impression on them as they tread the sand.” Again, we have in this neighbourhood the village of Skelton, with its pricely castle. Mr Ord writes of it in these words – “This small, obscure, and insignificant village will for ever stand renowned, not only in the history of Cleveland, but in that of the empire of the world, as the birthplace of a lofty and illustrious line of nobles, and the ancient cradle and nursery of warriors, princes and kings. From this little nook in Cleveland sprang mighty monarchs, queens, high chancellors, archbishops, earls, ambassadors, and knights, and above all, one brilliant and immortal name, Robert De Bruce, the great Scottish patriot, who, when liberty lay vanquished and protrate in the dust, and the genius of national freedom had fled shivering from her native hills, bravely stood forth his latest and noblest champion, and in defence of England’s proudest chivalry, achieved for Scotland a glorious independence and for himself an imperishable fame.! Total 5 miles.

Sixth Ramble

DRIVE – To Marske, 2 miles – Kirkleatham, 3 miles, Wilton Castle, 1 mile – Eston, 2 miles – Ormsby, 2 miles – Guisbro’, 6 miles – Skelton, 4 miles – Saltburn by the Sea, 2 miles. Total, 28 miles.

In this drive by Marske, Kirkleatham Hall, Tom Brown’s tree, gracing the entrance to the hospital, his father planted the day Tom was born. The following is a short account of his daring heroism :- Tom entered in the dragoon service. His fame, though dead, yet speaketh. It was at the battle of Dettingen, fought February 16, 1743, when he had two horses killed under him, and lost two fingers off his left hand, and when he saw their standard taken, he galloped into the midst of the enemy, shot the soldier, seized the standard, and, thrusting it between his thigh and the saddle, he gallantly fought his way back, eighty yards, through hostile ranks, and, though covered in wounds, bore his prize in triumph to his comrades, who greeted him with three cheers. In this valliant exploit our hero received eight wounds in his face, head, and neck, three balls went through his hat, two lodged in his back, which never could be extracted. The fame of Tom Brown spread through the kingdom. He received a pension of £30 per annum for life, and retired, lived and died at Yarm.

One of the most enchanting places in this vicinity is Wilton Castle, the seat of Sir JH Lowther, near Kirkleatham; the Mausoleum, the Hospital, and Hall present objects so various and beautiful as to satisfy the most craving lover of the romantic and picturesque. The annexed lines from a poem attributed to Sir JH Lowther, Bart., convey to the reader some idea of this charming locality.

Here Wilton stands, - the subject of my lay,

In woods embosomed shines her fair domain,

Where calm content, and peaceful pleasure reign,

Where chasten’d art, and lavish nature vie

With blended chars to fascinate the eye;

And sloping meads a constant verdure wear;

The rushing torrent rolls its rapid floods,

Descends the rocks, and issues thro’ the woods.

While rippling streamlets lend their aid

To the deep murmurs of the swift cascade;

No sound disturbs, nor forms, nor footsteps there,

Save the coy stock-dove, and the rustling hare.

Should fancy lead where ample scenes abound,

Ascend the steep and view the country round;

From Eston’s heights your wand’ring eye survey

Durham’s bold cliffs, and Seaham’s rocky bay;

Striking in view stands Hartlepool’s firm tower,

Whose massive pier defies proud Neptune’s power,

While stately vessels thread the winding Tees.

Fraught with the treasures of the Baltic seas.”

Since the above was written, oh what bustle there is here! Eston Nab riddled through, thousands of busy miners at work where twenty years ago all was still as death.

 

And now you have a view from Redcar to Stockton with their teeming thousands, blazing furnaces, rolling mills and forges, and in the place where a solitary farm once stood, stands Middlebro’, with its 20,000 inhabitants, overlooking other laces of renown; Dryden Hall, Jackson’s and Sir William Pennyman’s Hall, at Ormesby; you go round Eston Ridge, pass Barnaby Moor, Roseberry, and the other hills of iron ore, by Guisbro’ and Tockets. You have in another ride particulars given. Upleatham, Skelton Castle, through Skelton, pass the new hall of the Bell Brothers, quietly down to Saltburn by the Sea. This drive will be a total of 23 miles.

Seventh Ramble

DRIVE – To Brotton, 2 ½ miles – Lofthouse, 2 miles – Easington, 1 mile – Boulby Alum Works, 1 ½ mile – Staithes, 1 mile – Runswick Bay, 2 ½ miles – return by Hinderwell, 1 ½ mile – Grinkle Park, to Scaling, 6 miles – by Freebro’ Hill, 3 ½ miles – Stagho, 3 ½ miles – Trout Hall, 1 mile – Saltburn by the Sea, 2 ½ miles. Total 28 ¼ miles.

On leaving Saltburn, go by Brotton, Lofthouse, Eaisngton, Staithes, Runswick Bay, and return by Roxby and Scaling Moor. As you rise Brotton Ridge, on looking back on the new town and Skelton Vale to Guisbro’ Abbey, is a fine landscape view. Next is Skinningrove Bay, an ocean view. On the right is the woodland views of Lady Down, the Earl of Zetland, and JT Wharton, Esq. Up and above Kilton Old Castle, and in full view is Lofthouse, the seat of Sir Robert Dundas, and Boulby Alum Works, on Roecliff. We have spoken of a fine young colt that went over Huntcliff’s awful height, and was killed; and recently one of the railway navvies also, and died; but strange to say, from off Roecliff a man and his barrow went over, and was not killed. Some time after a boy and his barrow went off this awful precipice, and he is now captain of a ship sailing rom Middlesbro’. Their preservation was said to be owing to the strong gale of wind then blowing, together with their smock frocks. Here you are in the immediate vicinity of Staithes fishery, and Runswick Bay. The most remarkable event in the history of Kettleness is that, about 170 years ago, the whole village, except one house, sunk down during the night; that night there was a wake for the dead – the alarm was given, and I am happy to say no lives were lost. Again, in 1832, another slip took place, that buried the Alum House. Kettleness stands a monument rescued from annihilation, and is also as worthy a call as Staithes. Further on is Mulgrave princely castle and Alum Works. Beyond is the old and new towns of Whitby, and the abbey of Lady Hilda, a pious nun, who was much respected. Two of the noted Cholmley family, John and Ralph, fought at Floden Field; Sir Hugh at Guisbro’.

Whitby Harbour is a safe refuge, when once past the old wooden bridge. Let old Neptune rise and foam, and run mountains high, all are safe within her walls and bulwarks. Next is the Mulgrave princely castle, Sandsend and Alum Works. The Mulgrave family have ever stood in high renown with royalty as privy councillors, chancellors and ambassadors. The late Marquis of Normanby has just gone to his grave, at an advanced age. His son, Lord Mulgrave, succeeds to his titles. Here we notice other stars of great magnitude – Captain Cook, of Marton, left Staithes for Whitby, and entered upon his seafaring career, and became the great navigator and discover of nations, who laid down charts and maps for use of futurity, was on his third voyage around the worlds when his life became prey to the savage cannibals who, only a few days before, worshiped him as a god. Next is Roxby, said to be the road to no place. Here are found resolute, robust, heroic men for the sports of the field and foxhounds, called the Roxby pack, second to none, afterwards amalgamated with the Cleveland hounds. Even here rose a star of the first magnitude, the great Dr Newton, the divine. Cook traversed the seas the world round and round, Newton the three kingdoms through and through: ye, he travelled more than any man ever did in the ministry. As divine, his praises are in all the churches; through Christendom, ye, throughout the world; he was sent as representative and ambassador to the American church – preached to 20,000 or 30,000 people at once, and, before the great Congress, returned with the eulogies, thanks, and praises of that great people. As a divine, in preaching, in advocating the heathen mission on the platform, none ever did him excel. Millions have travelled far to see and hear him. J. Vaughan, Esq., was heard to say that it was worth travelling fifty miles to hear his trumpet voice giving out the hymn –

Before Jehovah’s awful throne

Ye nations bow with sacred joy.

In this highland drive you rise to Brotton, here you have the vales of Brotton, Kelton, Lofthouse, Easington, Boulby Alum Works, Staithes Fishery, Runswick Bay, Sandsend, Mulgrave Castle, Whitby Abbey, Lady Hilda. Sir Hugh Cholmley, the great commander, defended these parts, fought at Guisbro’, (particulars in another ride) Roger and John fought at Flodden Field. Roxby, by Grinkle Park, a commanding view by Scalingdem and Freebro’, here you see hill and dale, moor and field land like patchwork, it was behnd this hill that tearful tragedy was committed named elsewhere. Moorholm and Stagho; here your eye views the vales on the rising Stangho height, Skelton by Trout Hall, to Saltburn by the Sea. Total, 28 ½ miles.

Eighth Ramble

DRIVE – To Skelton, 2 ¼ miles – Guisbro’, 4 miles – Newton, 3 miles – Ayton, 2 miles – Ormesby , 1 ¼ mile – Wilton, by Eston, 4 miles – Kirkleatham, 1 mile – Coatham and Redcar, 2 miles – Redcar Sands, by Marske, 5 ½ miles. Total to Saltburn, 33 miles.

In this drive from Saltburn to Skelton you have a good view of the new town – the pleasure grounds are described in a former ramble. You have to pass the new hall of John Bell, Esq., Skelton, Upleatham, Guisbro’, Newton bold, Roseberry, and the lofty hills above Ayton. Here we notice the heroism of Captain Horny, almost without a parallel. He was the master of a merchant ship, named the Isabella, of Sunderland; when a French privateer attacked him, eight times his number, both in men and guns, decide 300 small arms. The Frenchman, in abusive language, commanded him to strike his colours, calling out in a menacing tone, “You English dogs, strike.” Hornby challenged him to come on board, and strike his colours if he dared. The Frenchman then threw in twenty men, who began to hack and hew into his close quarters, Hornby then dispatched a blunderbuss, which made the invaders retreat. The privateer tacked about, and made another attempt on the starboard side. Captain Hornby and his valiant mate each shot his man, and the Frenchman once more commanded him to strike. The brave Britain returned another refusal. Twenty fresh men entered, and made an attack at close quarters, when Captain H. and his brave crew obliged them again to retreat, the two vessels being at that time lashed together, the enemy with small arms pouring vollies in close quarters. At length Captain H., seeing them giving way, fired a double loaded blunderbuss, when it burst and Captain H. fell as dead – it made terrible havoc with the enemy. The gallant Hornby then fired his two starboard guns into the enemy’s stern, and the indignant Frenchman soon returned the compliment, the conflict was renewed, and after seven hours of hard fighting, the enemy again summoned Hornby, with dreadful menaces, to strike his colours, which animated his gallant crew to resistance, and the enemy’s crew refused to renew the dangerous task to board. Captain H. resolved to salute the Frenchman with one parting gun, which entered the magazine, and the ship blew up instantaneously; thirty five were killed and wounded, thirty five drowned, and three saved. The engagement lasted seven hours. Captain Hornby received from the King a large gold medal commemorating his heroism.

Stokesley Manor House, Colonel Hildyard, Nunthorpe, and Marton, Captain Cook’s birthplace, and on Easby Moor his monument , by R Campion, Esq., ask –

“Shall then no monumental stone be raised

To him whom sagas mourn’d, and kings rever’d,

Cook wants no borrow’d glory from our hand,

His fame, immortal shines in every land.”

Here your eye gazes on the vale of Cleveland, Stockton, and Middlesbro’, with their teeming populations and blazing furnaces; Ormeseby by Eston, Wilton, Coatham, Redcar, Marsk, to Saltburn by the Sea. Total, 33 miles.

Ninth Ramble

RIDE – By Bradshaw House to Marske, 2 miles – Kirkleatham, 3 miles – Yearby to Guisbro’, 4 ½ miles – Spaw by Longhulls Hall, 1 mile; Videx to Airyhill, 1 ½ mile – by Skelton Ellers, to Upleatham Hall, 1 ½ mile – by Hib Hill, 2 ½ miles, to Saltburn by the Sea. Total, 17 miles.

By Bradshaw House you have on your left Upleatham mines, on your right Marsk, Redcar, and the sea in full view; at Yearby you proceed on to Guisbro’, by Tockets Hall, General Hale’s, allied to the Dundas’s family, whose wife bore him twenty two children; this hall is razed to the ground, and the noble Hales gone to their resting place. Here is Guisbro’ and its Abbey, and Longhulls Hall, the seat of Captain Chaloner, Sir Thomas, and a long list of that honourable family; their high standing in successive reigns with royalty, and allied to the ancient Princes of Wales, as ambassador; was highly received by Charles the Fifth for his bravery as a soldier; once when shipwrecked in the dark night, he caught a cable with his teeth, and was thus saved. Sir Thomas the second, as honourable as his father, established the Alum Works at Guisbro’. Robert Chaloner was married into the Dundas family. Emmey Chaloner had fifteen children. Sir Hugh Cholmley was born at Roxby, in the year 1600, fought at a battle at Guisbro’, January 16, 1643, defeated six hundred of the King’s troops, and took Colonel Slingsby, their commander, a prisoner, with a great number of his men. He bravely defended this district against the King’s forces. Next you have the Spaw and Vidox, on to Airyhill, a commanding view far and near Guisbro’, the Abbey and the Moor on which the battle was fought. The vale of Skelton, Lofthouse, Freebro’, Redcar, Marsk, Saltburn by the Sea. Upleatham Hall, Skelton Castle, the counties of Durham and Northumberland, and the Yorkshire hills. You will descend by Fortypence Wood and Skelton, Ellers, Upleatham, by Hobhill to Saltburn by the Sea. Total, 17 miles.

Tenth Ramble

RIDE – From Saltburn to Bradshaw House, 1 mile; by Marske Mines, 1 mile; Kirkleatham, 3 miles; Coatham and Redcar, 2 miles; to Saltburn by the Sea, by the Sands, 5/1/2 miles : Total 12 ½ miles.

In this ride, as soon as you pass Bradshaw House below Hobhill; you have the Iron Mines on your left, Marske and Marske Hall on your right; you now enter Kirkleatham, and must call to see the famous hospital, the museum and Tom Brown’s tree; Sir Charles Hall called it a paradise of beauty, fifty years ago. There stood naked figures in marble on every side, also cannons fixed pointing in every lane. (I have in my possession two balls which belonged to Sir Charles.) After Sir Charles’s death, Lady Turner wisely had them removed. Sir Charles won and lost much at horse racing; once, I believe at Dncaster, he won £20,000, and the same night lost it nearly all amongst sharpers. I have heard it said, at one time he staked Kirkleatham estate, and lost again, and when the successful winner claimed his prize, Sir Charles thought he had done badly and regretted much to part with this beautiful estate, and kept his hold, the bootless winner told Sir Charles that it was not honourable; d----- the honour, said Sir Charles, give me Kirkleatham; and it now is in the hands of the rightful owner, Lady Turner, Vansit-tart’s daughter, Mrs Newcombe’s happy home. You next call at Coatham, and the far-famed Redcar, and by the sands to Saltburn by the Sea. Total, 12 ½ miles.

Eleventh Ramble

RIDE – Old Saltburn to Huntcliff, 1 ½ mile, or Brotton, 2 miles – Skinnngrove by Cattersby Creek, 1 ½ mile – Alum House, 1 mile – Lofthouse, 1 mile – Liverton, 2 miles – Beck-meetings ford, 1 ½ miles – Kilton Castle. ½ mile, Brotton by Kilton, 1 ½ mile – or by Stangho, and Bousbeck to Skelton Castle, 4 miles – then by Hobhill, 1 ½ mile – to Saltburn by the Sea. Total 17 ¾ miles.

In this romantic ride, Huntcliffe or Brotton are most enchanting, - both sea, land and woodland. As you rise Brotton height, you have Brotton, Skelton, and Lofthouse in full view: Lofthouse with its holly hedges, alum house, and alum making; Liverton and its wood, by Beckmeetngs-ford, at times impassable by flood. Here Bob Dryden had sense enough not to ride, but like a madman without sense rode the footbridge below in a flood safe. A little below this bridge are the petrifying springs, call and see them, also another in Great Scar Wood. You pass on to Litle Moorsholm. Here, sixty years agio, through this ford, the packhorse brought corn to Saltburn granaries, through Kilton and neighbourhood; next by Stangho Hall and Bousbeck Moor, and Skelton Mill to Marsk Mill, through the pleasure ground to Saltburn by the Sea. This ride will be found a romantic and interesting one. Total, 17 ¾ miles.

Twelfth Ramble

Redcar Sands, ride, drive, walk every day, stretching 7 miles. Total, 14 miles.

 

Copies of Letters

Received from Sir George Grey and Sir CB Phipps, acknowledging the receipt of the following verses:-

Whitehall, 21st April, 1863

SIR, - I am directed by Secretary Sir George Grey to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 17th instant, and to inform you that he has forwarded to Sir Charles Phipps the verses, &c., of Mr John Farndale, which were sent by you for presentation to the Queen.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

H WADDON, Jun.

Henry Pease, Esq., MP, &c., &c.

 

Windsor Castle, April 22nd, 1863.

SIR, - Sir George Grey has forwarded me your letter, with accompanying verses, &c. I have had the honour to present the latter to Her Majesty the Queen, by whom they have been graciously accepted.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your obedient humble servant,

CB Phipps.

H Pease, Esq., MP

 

Verses

Written on the Marriage of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales,

March 10, 1863

And graciously received by Her Majesty the Queen, at Windsor Castle.

Albert Edward, Prince of Wales,

England’s boast – a Nation’s pride,

Son of the most beloved Prince,

Welcome to England they bride.

 

Hail! – blest Princess of the Danes,-

All hail! – Denmark’s sweetest rose;

Albert, - Alexandria, - hail, -

In joy, and peace t’ repose.

 

Blow ye breezes, soft and fair,

Let old Neptune sweetly smile,

Bring the precious freight he bears

To Old England’s happy Isle.

 

Long live Queen Victoria,

Long, long live the Royal Pair,

Long live each, Prince and Princess.

In this, or other lands to share.

 

Supplement to the Cleveland District

First, this district, “Cleveland”, is mostly of a strong clayey soil, but in some places a clayey loam prevails, and in others a fine red sandy soil. This is generally called a fertile and well cultivated vale, and more so of late years by the introduction of modern machinery, artificial manures, and extensive drainage, and may now be said to produce from sixty to a hundred fold of wheat, beans, oats, clover, turnips, and potatoes, on loomy soil when drained. Old sward in many places is good and rich feeding pasture.  Cleveland is said to produce some of the finest and largest short horned cattle in England. The breed of late years has been much improved. They are a handsome animal, distinctly marked with red blotches on a white ground, or a beautiful roan; their backs level, throats clean; necks fine, carcase full and round, quarters long, hips and rumps even and wide, and light in their bone; they have a fine coat, thin hides, and are sold at high prices for breeding. The Tees water breed of sheep, the old stock. Have been greatly improved by a mixture of the Leicestershire and Durham rams, and are sold at high prices. Pigs also, both strong and smaller breed, for many years have been improved. Sir Lawrence Dundas introduced into his district a fine small Chinese breed, and JH Wharton, Esq. presented his tenants with one each. My father’s was a fine boar pig. Cleveland is particularly distinguished for its breed of horses. Their fame is deservedly spread, says one writer, not only in this country, but also in France, Germany, Russia, and America. Dealers from the counties are commissioned by emperors, kings, princes and others, to purchase Cleveland hoses and mares for breeding. Cleveland bays, by the introduction of the racing blood, are rendered more valuable for the saddle, and for the carriage. Formerly Cleveland bays, for the plough sold at high prices.

Geology, says a learned writer, may be defined to be the inquiry into the natural history of the earth, extending through the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, and comprising in its investigations all time past, present, and to come. The science of geology is in perfect harmony with Divine Revelation – the Book of God. To the student of nature in three grand departments – the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, perhaps there is o portion of Great Britain that furnishes equal scope for mineralogical pursuits, and materials for research. Iron ore and aluminious schistus is the great staple of Cleveland. On iron rails we travel into all corners of the kingdom; on iron ships into all the kingdoms of the world; and iron wires we whisper into the ears of any kingdom any hour of the day, and may be answered the same day. From this district we could hoop the world round and round. The knowledge of art and science, attained by precept, are the seven liberal arts – grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy. At our agricultural show, August 1863, £50 was offered for the best essay on Cleveland farming. Why not on art and science.

I have already spoken most respectfully of our ancient nobility, most of whom I knew: Marquises, earls, lords, baronets, nights, MPs, Esqrs,. Ambassadors, commanders, captains, &c. Cleveland with her present nobility, gentry, clergy, and mechanics, and merchants in alum strata and iron ore, visit this district to see the numerous blast furnaces, rolling mills, forges, iron ship building &c. One furnace can tap 1,000pigs of iron per day, 7,000 per week, 28,000 per month, 364,000 per year – thirty furnaces in one year 30,920,000 pigs. Cleveland has becme a hive of industry. There are now employed thousands of miners, moulders, puddlers, and labourers in the iron trade. Our merchants are princes of fortune, “in a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills though may’st dig brass.” The equipages of those nobles are splendid, their carriage horses are the improved Cleveland bays, which none can excel; their harness clad with gold, like the days of Solomon – silver is thought nothing of. Long live our Cleveland princes a blessing to the district, and of whom we are proud.

The antiquities abound with old castles, halls, abbeys, nunneries, homes, hermitages, battle fields, and military roads. Mulgrave Castle, Wilton castle and Skelton Castle are all rebuilt, and are princely ornaments in the vale of Cleveland. Egton Castle, Castleton Castle and Kildale Castle have been razed to the ground. Danby Castle and Kilton Castle are yet in ruins, as also Guisbro’ Abbey and Whitby Abbey. The last hermitage belonging to Whitby is Saltburn, on the banks of the Holbeck, not far from Saltburn by the Sea.

Amongst the centenarians in this district may be noticed Henry Parr, died at York, aged 169 years; William Sedman, died at Whitby, aged 116 years; Ann, his wife, died at Whitby, aged 111 years; Dolly Page, died at Kilton, aged 105 years, John Farndale, died at Kilton aged 90 years; William Farndale, died at Kilton, aged 86 years.

This district once abounded with wild animals – the badger, the otter, the wolf, the stag, and the wild boar, which are now extinct; but the fox, the hare, the rabbit, the squirrel, the dormouse, rat, hedgehog, the martin, the foumet, and the snake all abound in this district.

The feathered game tribe comprise the pheasant, the partridge, the black grouse, the woodcock, and the snipe. The songsters are the thrush, the blackbird, the jay, the lark, the linnet, the bullfinch, the starling, the cuckoo, &c.

Rush Pool Hall, the seat of John Bell Esq., is a most beautiful gothic building, being built with blue ironstone, interwoven with light free stone, and has a sea view, sheltered n all sides with delightful woodland, and is situate north east by Andrew’s, west by JT Wharton’s, north west by the Earl of Zetland’s, and has a splendid view. The pleasure grounds are the most romantic, and are far away from the noisy world – a chosen Eden, not a mile from Saltburn by the Sea. Call and see.

As far as my limits will allow I have now briefly noticed most of the prominent objects connected with the most interesting part of Cleveland, where formerly its vast forests were infested with troops of prowling wolves, and where once the stately stag and the voracious wild boar abound, the hunting of which was reserved by Henry I, as a royal prerogative. Since then what a change has taken place! Civilisation has revolutionised the aspect of the country. Instead of immense forests abounding with ravenous animals, we see smiling hills and vales crowded with verdure, where amidst scattered villages, and hamlets, and farm steads, the cottager, under the protection of our excellent laws, lives in security, and where the husbandsman from year to year reaps the produce of his labour unmolested by the devastating ravages of hideous war.

It may truly be said that nature has been exceedingly lavish in her gifts in this part of the country, particularly at Saltburn by the Sea, destined o doubt, by the extension of the Stockton and Darlington Railway to that place, to be the nucleus of a happy and thriving community.

The extension of this railway to a district little known, cannot but be attended with beneficial results, as it not only opens a direct communication to a new sea bathing place, where the visitor may enjoy pure air, splendid walks, and beautiful scenery; but it also affords the means of conveying to us those illimitable stored of iron ore so lately discovered on the adjacent hills, and which discovery has led to the employment of thousands, and given additional impulse to our trade and commerce, and thus our means of usefulness have been enlarged, our social and domestic comforts augmented, and the general prosperity of the district and the nation at large so extended as to increase our wealth, and confer a lasting benefit on every section of a grateful and industrious population.

Time was – to all a precious boon;

Time is – is passed away so soon;

Time no more – is eternity;

Time was – is – is no more to be.

Salltburn by the Sea

An alphabetical record of the principal places and seat-houses of our ancient nobility and gentry, with the churches and clergy in the locality of the New Watering Place, Saltburn by the Sea, with their respective distances in miles.

Acklam Hall, Thomas Hustler, Esq., JP: church incumbent, Rev J Benson – 16 miles.

Ayton Halls, J Richard, and – Graham, Esqrs.: church – All Sants, Rev W Deacon  - 17 miles.

Arncliffe Hall, the Missis Mauleverers: church - St Andrew’s, Rev J Steele – 22 miles.

Busby Hall, Rev G Marwood: church, Carlton, Rev Thomas Brown – 17 miles

Brotton, R Jackson and R Stephenhouse, Esqrs.: chapel of ease, Rev J Perrington – 2 miles.

Boulby Hall, WW Jackson, and Baker, Esqrs. J Dods, alum maker – 6 miles

Cargo Fleet, P Heseltine, Esq., merchant – 14 miles.

Carlton, JG Marwood, Esq., JP – 17 miles.

Castleton Castle and Danby Lodge – 10 miles.

Commondale, Dr Loy – 10 miles.

Crathorn, Sir Wm Crathorn, Bart; church, All Saints, Rev R Greensides – 23 miles.

Danby Lodge, Catherine Parr and Viscount Downs; church, Rev D Duck; Danby Beacon, High Moor – 11 miles.

Dromanby Hall, Miss Dobson, 20 miles.

Easby Hall, Cook’s Monument, R Campbell Esq., chapel of Ease, Stokesley – 14 miles.

Egglescliff, Aislakby’s, Waldy’s Temples; church, St John the Baptist.

Easington, Grinkle Park – Middleton Esq. – 8 miles

Eston, Eston Nab, Iron Mines – 8 miles. Wm Stapleton, Esq., chapel of ease, Rev – Thompson, of ormseby – 8 miles.

Farndale Dale, Blaka Ridge – 18 miles.

Feesby Lodge, J Leaf, Esq. – 16 miles.

Friarage, Thos Maynell, Esq., Yarm – 19 miles.

Green Howe Hall, Sir W Fowles, Bart, JP – 16 miles.

Guisbro’ Abbey, Longhull Hall, Sir Thos Chaloner. 6 miles. Church St Nicholas, Rev TP Williamson.

Grinkle Park, R Middleton, Esq. – 7 miles.

Handle Abbey, J Bell, Esq. – 6 miles.

Hunley Hall, R Jackson, Esq., Captain Napper, R Stephenson, Esq – 2 miles.

Hutton Rudby, Scuttershelf, the seat of Lady Amrest; church, All Saints, Rev – Greenwood – 20 miles.

Hinderwell, Lady Hilda, a nun: church, St Hilda, Rev N Howlet – 10 miles.

Ingleby Manor, Sir D Fowles, Bart – 16 miles.

Ingleby Arncliff, Missis Mauleverers; church, St Andrew, Rev J Dixon – 22 miles.

Kildale Hall , Sir C Turner and L Bell, Esq., church, St Cuthbert, Rev – Thomson – 17 miles.

Kirkleatham Hall and Hospital, Sir Chas Turner, Bart; church, St Cuthbert, Rev J Shaw – 7 miles.

Kirby Hall, J Hindson and Miss Dobson; church St Augustine, Rev J Harcourt – 17 miles.

Kilton Castle and Hall, Wm Tulley, Esq. – 5 miles.

Liverton, Viscount Down and Thomas Petch, Esq., church of ease, Rev R Chapman – 6 miles.

Lofthouse, Sir H Lawrence, and Sir R Dundas, MP, JP; church, St Lennard, Rev Wm Barrick – 4 miles.

Mulgrave Castle, Earl Mulgrave; Lyth church, St Oswald, Rev W Long – 12 miles.

Marton Hall, Major Rood, Captain Cook’s birthplace; church, St Cuthbert, Rev D Duck.

Marske Hall, Sir Lawrence Dundas; church, St Germain, Rev J Wilkinson – 2 miles.

Middlebro’, J Parrington Esq., farmer, formerly a nunnery, incumbent, Rev J Bensen.

Newton Grove, J Spink, Esq., Roseberry Topping; church, Rev JC Metcalf – 10 miles.

Normanby Hall, WW Jackson, Esq., and C Dryden, Esq. – 9 miles.

Nunthorp Hall, Thomas Simpson, Esq.; chapel of ease, Rev – Thompson – 10 miles.

Ormesby Hall, Sir Wm Penniman, Bart; church, St Cuthbert, Rev R Waughan – 11 miles.

Ormesby North, Sir Wm Penniman, Bart – 13 miles.

Potto Grange, James Wilton, Esq – 14 miles.

Pinchingthopre Hall, J Lee, Esq. – 9 miles.

Preston Hall, M Fowler, Esq. – 14 miles

Redcar and Coatham, Sir C Turner; church, St Peter, Rev J Wilkinson – 6 miles.

Rosebury Conical Peak, Newton – 11 miles.

Roxby – Tunton, Esq., and – Kildall Esq., JP – 9 miles.

Saltburn Old, JH Wharton, Esq.

Saltburn New, from which distances are taken.

Skelton Castle, De Brus, and JH Wharton Esq.; church, All Saints, Rev J Parrington – 2 miles.

Stokesley Manor House, Rev H Hildyard, incumbent; church, St Peter, the Rev, the Dean of York – 16 miles.

Stangho Hall, Richard Scarth, Esq – 4 miles.

Staithes Fishery, Thms Thrattles, Esq – 8 miles.

Stockton South, and Thornaby; chapel of ease – 20 miles.

Stenton church, the Rev Archdeacon Hambleton – 18 miles.

Tockets Hall, General Hails – 5 miles.

Tolesby Hall, J Rood, Esq – 15 miles.

Trout Hall, Skelton, C Irvine, Esq – 3 miles.

Upleatham Hall, Thomas Lord Dundas; church, Rev J Wilkinson – 3 miles.

Westerdale; chapel of ease, Stokesley – 11 miles.

Whitby Hall, Abbey and Harbour; church, St Mary, Rev J Andrews and Rev J Young – 20 miles.

Whorlton Castle, Lady Mary Aylesbury; church, Holy Cross, Rev W Dawson  20 miles.

Wilton Castle, Sir J Lowther, Bart; church, St Cuthvert, Rev J Saul – 6 miles.

Yarm, Thomas Maynell, Esq.; church, St Mary Magdelene, Rev Richard Graves – 26 miles.

Yerby, Kirkleatham Hospital – 7 miles.

 

 

 

CW Hird, Printer, Northgate, Darlington

 

 

 

 

Notes on John Farndale’s world

 

 

The Whartons

John Wharton (born John Hall-Stevenson) (21 June 1765 – 29 May 1843) was a British landowner and MP. He was born the eldest son of Joseph William Hall-Stevenson of Skelton, in the North Riding of Yorkshire and educated at the Royal School, Armagh, Trinity College, Dublin and Lincoln's Inn. He succeeded his father in 1786, inheriting the ruinous Skelton Castle. In 1788 he took the surname of Wharton only by sign manual on succeeding to the fortune and estates of his aunt Mrs Margaret Wharton. He then demolished the old Skelton Castle and between 1788 and 1817 built a similarly named Gothic country house in its place. He served as the Whig MP for Beverley from 1790 to 1796 and again from 1802 to 1826. By 1829 he was in debt and spent the next 14 years in the Fleet Debtors Prison, where he died childless in 1843. He had married Susan Mary Anne, the daughter of General John Lambton of Lambton, County Durham. He had two daughters who both predeceased him and was succeeded by his nephew, John Thomas Wharton.

John Thomas Wharton, to whom John Farndale’s book is dedicated, was born in York on 9 March 1795 and died at Tadcaster on 25 September 1871, aged 76. His uncle, John Wharton died childless and in poverty in 1843 and Skelton devolved to John Thomas Wharton of Gilling.

 

The Farndales of Kilton

John Farndale’s books describe particularly the world in which the Kilton 1 Line of Farndales lived. The tales of past Kilton perhaps also have something to tell us of the world of the Kilton 2 Line and the Kilton 3 Line.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lucifer Matches

Two Quaker merchants, Francis May and William Bryant set up their partnership in 1843, first to import matches and then they began manufacturing them.

Originally the matches they made were of a kind called the ‘lucifer’, a dubious invention claimed by Sir Isaac Holden MP. According to the Pall Mall Gazette of 1893, Isaac Holden was getting tired of using flint-and-steel to light his lamps and was interested in the explosive properties of new chemical inventions which he thought might offer an alternative. The young son of a chemist overheard him droning on about this and told his father about it. Soon after the lucifer match was born.

Others claim it was John Walker (or possibly Samuel Jones) who first sold ‘lucifer’ matches in the 1830s.

Whether the truth, by the mid 19 century there was an enormous demand for lucifer matches.

 

The wrecking of the Esk

From the article by Chris Scott Wilson at https://www.chrisscottwilson.co.uk/story-of-the-esk/4548351304

On the misty gale-torn morning of 6th September 1826, crashing surf and screeching winds brought about the end of the Whitby whaler Esk. Grounded just below the low water line at Marske-by-Sea in Cleveland, 17 miles from home, less than seven hours saw her a total wreck. Spars, rigging, timbers and cargo were strewn for miles along the coast. The 350-ton Esk had led a chequered career. She had been built in 1813 and was owned by Broderick., Fishburn and Company of Whitby. Her command was offered to William Scoresby Junior, 23, who had already made a name for himself. Scoresby was 26 in 1816 when he set sail in the middle of March for Esk's fourth Greenland voyage. It was to be one he would never forget. By April Esk was surrounded by closing ice in the Arctic sea which damaged her rudder. After repairs they resumed fishing, but in May the Esk was again trapped by ice and only by ice-sawing and towing by whaleboats were they able to escape on June 12. The fishing was good. 13 whales were caught and flensed, the blubber packed in Esk's hold then on 29th June she was again nipped by the ice. Scoresby recorded that ‘the pressure on the ship was by no means heavy, nor to appearance, dangerous,’ but after the ice gave, the carpenter sounded the hold to find it held 8½ feet of water.

The new master of Esk was Captain Dunbar who had sailed with Scoresby’s father and from whom the younger Scoresby had learned some of his fishing skills. For eight years Esk met with varying success and on 5th September 1826 she was making slow headway home against a southerly breeze after catching only four whales. After discharging the Shetlanders at Lerwick, her crew numbered 27, all eager to reach Whitby.  Captain Dunbar took advantage of the inshore tide as Esk passed Hartlepool, but suddenly an easterly gale sprang up, driving her shoreward. Sails were shredded before they could be reefed as the frantic crew fought to bring her into the wind. At nightfall, the mainsail ripped from top to bottom, twisting her broadside to heavy seas which smashed against her beam ends. At 10.30 their fears were realised when she grounded opposite the cliffs at Marske. They fired guns and burnt a distress light when they saw lanterns through the spume, but crashing waves were by then sweeping the decks and lifting the ship, only to smash her back onto the seabed. At 5.15 am the Esk went to pieces. That morning, 6th September 1826, saw mountainous seas washing debris ashore, breakers revealing timbers and bodies tangled together in the indignity of death. William Scoresby junior later wrote he thought of the Esk with great affection, and it was he who conducted the memorial service at St. Mary’s church on Whitby cliff top. 3,000 people attended the service, and influenced by Scoresby’s preaching, gave generously for those families deprived of their breadwinners. Only three men survived the wreck.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The German Ocean

The North Sea has had various names through history. One of the earliest recorded names was Septentrionalis Oceanus, or "Northern Ocean," which was cited by Pliny. The name "North Sea" probably came into English, however, via the Dutch "Noordzee", who named it thus either in contrast with the Zuiderzee ("South Sea"), located south of Frisia, or because the sea is generally to the north of the Netherlands. Before the adoption of "North Sea," the names used in English, in American English in particular, were "German Sea" or "German Ocean", referred to the Latin names "Mare Germanicum" and "Oceanus Germanicus", and these persisted in use until the First World War

Messrs Bolcklow & Vaughan

Bolckow, Vaughan & Co., Ltd was an English ironmaking and mining company founded in 1864, based on the partnership since 1840 of its two founders, Henry Bolckow and John Vaughan. The firm drove the dramatic growth of Middlesbrough and the production of coal and iron in the north-east of England in the 19th century. The two founding partners had an exceptionally close working relationship which lasted until Vaughan's death. By 1907 Bolckow, Vaughan was possibly the largest producer of pig iron in the world. The firm failed to modernise at the start of the 20th century, and was closed in 1929.

In 1840, Henry Bolckow (1806–1878) and John Vaughan (1799–1868) set up in business in Middlesbrough to make iron. They lived side by side in two town houses, the Cleveland Buildings, about 400 yards (370 m) away from their ironworks which were on Vulcan Street, and they married a pair of sisters, which may explain their close friendship. In 1846, Bolckow and Vaughan built their first blast furnaces at Witton Park, founding the Witton Park Ironworks. The works used coal from Witton Park Colliery to make coke, and ironstone from Whitby on the coast. The pig iron produced at Witton was transported to Middlesbrough for further forging or casting. In 1850, Vaughan and his mining geologist John Marley discovered iron ore, conveniently situated near Eston in the Cleveland Hills of Yorkshire. Unknown to anyone at the time, this vein was part of the Cleveland Ironstone Formation, which was already being mined in Grosmont by Losh, Wilson and Bell. To make use of the ore being mined at Eston, in 1851 Bolckow and Vaughan built a blast furnace at nearby South Bank, Middlesbrough, to make use of the ore from nearby Eston, enabling the entire process from rock to finished products to be carried out in one place. It was the first to be built on Teesside, on what was later nicknamed "the Steel River". Middlesbrough grew from 40 inhabitants in 1829 to 7600 in 1851, 19,000 in 1861 and 40,000 in 1871, fuelled by the iron industry. In 1864, Bolckow, Vaughan and Company Ltd was registered with capital of £2,500,000, making it the largest company ever formed up to that time. By that time, the company's assets included iron mines, collieries, and limestone quarries in Cleveland, County Durham and Weardale respectively, and had iron and steel works extending over 700 acres (280 ha) along the banks of the River Tees. In 1868, Vaughan died. The Institution of Civil Engineers, in their obituary, commented on the relationship between Vaughan and Bolckow: "There was indeed something remarkable in the thorough division of labour in the management of the affairs of the firm. While possessing the most unbounded confidence in each other, the two partners never interfered in the slightest degree with each other's work. Mr. Bolckow had the entire management of the financial department, while Mr. Vaughan as worthily controlled the practical work of the establishment."

See also the history of Bolckow & Vaughan, Men of Steel, by Chris Scott Wilson at https://www.chrisscottwilson.co.uk/bolckow-vaughan/4546265432

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Attacks on the Skinngrove Coast by Privateers

In the late eighteenth century, the Skinningrove coastline was raided by an American privateer captained by Paul Jones. A privateer was a privately owned armed ship which could be commissioned by a Government to fight in wartime. Some owners were little more than legalised pirates but at the time - 1779 - America was at war with England, seeking independence.

Paul Jones was  a Commodore in the American navy, born in Scotland. After raiding the Cumberland coast he was determined to plunder Whitby, then a wealthy port. He appeared off Skinningrove, fired into the village and then sent his men ashore on a raiding party before heading for Whitby. His ship was fired upon by soldiers who manned a battery above where the Spa now stands, but their cannon exploded and hurled two soldiers to their death onto the rocks below.

On 20 September 1779, the bailiffs of Scarborough sent an urgent message to Bridlington to say that a hostile squadron of ships, captained by the notorious Paul Jones, had been sighted. Three days later four vessels - Bonhomme Richard, Alliance, Pallas and Vengeance - entered the bay off Sewerby between Bridlington and Flamborough Head, causing the local people to hide their valuables and take shelter. But Jones was not interested in small gains - he was after a much bigger prize.

A fleet of English merchantmen was moving along the coast, protected by two men-o'-war, the Seraphis and Countess of Scarborough, and they were trying to reach Scarborough harbour for protection by cannons positioned in Scarborough Castle. They didn't make it.

In spite of Jones' superior strength and firepower, the two English ships fought bravely and indeed, the Seraphis was more manoeuvrable than Jones' Bonhomme Richard. Crowds stood on Filey cliffs to watch this most remarkable of sea battles, with Bonhomme Richard ramming the Seraphis until the two were locked in what was described as a deadly embrace. The crews then engaged in hand-to-hand fighting and close cannon fire.

Although the Countess of Scarborough was beaten, the gallant Seraphis continued to inflict severe damage on the Bonhomme Richard, so much so that the ship's master gunner hauled down her flag. But Jones fought on until fire from other American vessel, followed by a cruel explosion on Seraphis caused her master, Captain Pearson, to surrender.

Jones then abandoned the Bonhomme Richard with many injured crewmen still on board, and commandeered the Seraphis to claim victory. For more than 36 hours, Jones tried to save his stricken ship but, badly holed and damaged by fire, she sank on September 25 with her pennant still fluttering. Paul Jones watched her sink, thus making this the only known occasion when a maritime commander won a battle and then left the scene in a beaten ship. Some reports say Jones left his injured crew members to go down with her.

 

 

 

 

Skelton Castle

Skelton Castle can refer to either a ruined medieval castle or an 18th-century Gothic style country house that replaced it. The site of both buildings is the village of Skelton, in North Yorkshire, England. The house is Grade I listed.

The castle was built of stone by Robert de Brus in 1140. It had two look-out towers, dungeons, and a moat with a drawbridge and portcullis. In 1265 it was surrendered to King Henry III. In 1272 it went to Walter de Fauconberg and remained in the family for the next 200 years. In 1490 it was inherited by William Conyers, when it was described as ruinous. From him it passed into the Trotter family and then by marriage to the Hall family by the marriage of Joseph Hall to Catherine Trotter. Their son John inherited and changed his name to Hall-Stevenson after marrying Ann Stevenson. He formed the "Demoniacks" club who met at the ruins of the castle for drinking bouts. His son, Joseph Hall-Stevenson, died within a year of his father and thus Joseph's son John Hall-Stevenson (1766–1843) inherited the castle. In 1788 he changed his name to John Wharton and was Member of Parliament for Beverley between 1790 and 1820. He also demolished the castle and replaced it by the current country house between 1770 and 1817.

The present house is built of dressed sandstone with a roof of Lakeland slate. It is a two-storey block with a 5-bay frontage. It incorporates some remains of the medieval castle. The house was built c.1770 and extended in 1810-1817 by Ignatius Bonomi. It was constructed between 1788 and 1817 for John Wharton, Member of Parliament for Beverley who had inherited the ruined Skelton Castle from his father Joseph Hall-Stevenson in 1786. John Wharton had changed his name from Hall-Stevenson to Wharton to comply with the terms of a legacy. He inherited a considerable fortune from his aunt, much of which he spent of demolishing the castle and building his new home. He died childless and in poverty in 1843 and Skelton devolved to his nephew John Thomas Wharton of Gilling. The property then descended in the Wharton family to William Henry Anthony Wharton, High Sheriff of Yorkshire for 1925, and on his death in 1938, to his daughter Margaret Winsome Ringrose Wharton. She had married Christopher Hildyard Ringrose, a Royal Navy captain, who had added the additional surname of Wharton to that of Ringrose. She lived there until at least 1986, by which time her relative, Major Wharton, actually ran the estate on account of her age.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Joseph Pease

From the article by Chris Scott Wilson at https://www.chrisscottwilson.co.uk/joseph-pease/4545812441

When Joseph Pease first saw ‘Middlesbrugh’ (sic) on the banks of the River Tees, there stood only a farmhouse with a few outbuildings. Seven years earlier, the 1821 census had recorded five families comprising 40 persons living in four houses. The site had previously supported a small monastery attached to St. Hilda’s abbey at Whitby, because between 1094 - 1141, Robert de Brus II of Skelton Castle who controlled all the land between Yarm and Runswick Bay had given a ‘considerable’ amount of land for a church with a grant of 50/- (£2-50) to be distributed among the poor of ‘Midlesburg’. In 1828 when Joseph Pease saw the land, he recorded in his diary he was ‘much pleased with the place altogether’. Joseph was a man who made things happen. A Quaker, born on 22 June 1799 into a wealthy family, he was educated at Tatum’s School in Leeds, then under the tutelage of Josiah Forster in Southgate, London. Still in his teens, his initiation into business was working up from the bottom in the wool factories at Darlington owned by his father, Edward Pease who also partnered George Stephenson in his engine factory at Walker, Newcastle, and was a board member of the Stockton & Darlington Railway where he earned himself the title ‘Father of the Railways’. Given a stiff example to emulate, Joseph’s achievements would equal, if not surpass those of his father. At the age of 25 he became treasurer of the Stockton & Darlington Railway. He quickly acquired a reputation for giving sound advice, and under his scrutiny the dividends of 5% rose to 7% and more. With the railway in need of expansion and a more convenient port necessary to export the harvest of the Durham coalfields, the company sought a site for a terminus on the lower Tees. Further up, the river was treacherous and almost unnavigable, only small craft of shallow draught capable of reaching Stockton and Yarm. The new port was to be called Port Darlington. In the face of heavy opposition from Stockton and Yarm industrialists, who knew a new port lower down the river would steal much of their business, it was Joseph Pease who became prime mover in lobbying parliament to grant the necessary Act for the Middlesbrough Railway Extension. He enlisted the aid of several peers, two of which he later named Middlesbrough streets after; Lords Dacre and Suffield. Joseph saw all too well what the railway and Port Darlington would do for Middlesbrough and the coal industry. With his five sons and his brother Henry, he formed a company called Pease & Partners. They began to invest heavily in the Durham coalfields, beginning with St. Helens at Bishop Auckland, expanding rapidly until the company was the country’s largest coal owner. Several of Joseph’s friends had been watching progress at Middlesbrough with interest and when Joseph was offered Mr Chiltern’s estate for £30,000 they persuaded him to form The Owners of The Middlesbrough Estate, based on the purchase of 488 acres. Such was Joseph’s faith, he borrowed his share of the capital from his father-in-law, Joseph Gurney. Perhaps it was an indication of Gurney’s faith that he agreed to the loan. The Owners laid out a 32 acre site, providing roads and drains, drawing up a building code to which purchasers of the plot had to adhere. In effect, The Owners acted much as the Council today, even to creating bye-laws for the inhabitants of the original town,  north of the railway station, nowadays referred to as ‘over the border’. Joseph Pease always kept his finger on Teesside’s pulse. By 1840 when Middlesbrough showed signs of stagnating, it was clearly in his interest as one of The Owners and as a director of Pease & Partners to attract alternative industry. The move he made was to offer Henry Bolckow and John Vaughan land on easy terms and give them letters of introduction when they started their iron business. Little did he know how productive that gesture would be.

While setting up The Owners of the Middlesbrough Estate who offered the first house building plots available in Middlesbrough and overseeing Pease & Partners’ rapidly growing mining interests in County Durham, Joseph Pearse was asked to stand for parliament. Elected in 1832, representing South Durham, he became the first Quaker to sit in the Commons. There too, he made his presence felt. He campaigned against corruption and slavery while fervently supporting human rights and religious freedom. He proposed and carried a clause in the Metropolitan Police Bill prohibiting the common pastimes of bull and bear baiting, and also sat on many committees dealing with industry. Re-elected in 1835 and 1837 he eventually resigned from parliament in 1841 because of heavy business commitments. Under his influence, The Owners of the Middlesbrough Estate made concessions to entice Henry Bolckow and John Vaughan to set up their prospective iron business in Middlesbrough. He knew their interests would feed off each other. Port revenues would increase as Bolckow & Vaughan imported pig iron while their processes would consume coal dug from Pease & Partners’ mines and transported by the Stockton & Darlington Railway. In turn,  Pease’s companies would have a sympathetic supplier of rails on their doorstep. So keen was Joseph Pease to see them succeed that during early lean years he personally gave financial aid and placed orders for rails to boost their order books. Later, when John Vaughan discovered and began to exploit the main seam of Cleveland ironstone, drawing ironmasters, ironworkers and miners in their hundreds to Teesside, Joseph Pease warmed his hands at the fire whose embers he had nurtured into flame. As the railways pushed east beyond Redcar, Pease & Partners expanded into ironstone mining. In 1853 they opened the Hutton Lowcross mine near Guisborough. Soon, they owned Upleatham, Skinningrove and Hob Hill (Saltburn) mines, between them annually producing almost a million tonnes of ore. The railway accounts looked healthy too. By 1875, eight and a half million tonnes of ironstone, limestone, coal and coke were being transported, most of which was used in Teesside’s iron industry. Joseph Pease was fond of the Cleveland coast. Shortly after retiring from parliament, in 1844 he bought several fishermen’s cottages on the seafront at Marske, demolished them then used the site to build Cliff House where his family spent their summers. It was from there one afternoon in 1859 his brother Henry took a stroll over the sandbanks to discover the old village of Saltburn. Returning breathless, he stated his intention to build a new town on top of the cliff. With some help from brother Joseph and the Stockton & Darlington Railway, he succeeded, naming it Saltburn by the Sea. Joseph’s Cliff House at Marske still stands as a landmark, nowadays a retirement home. If Cleveland made Joseph Pease rich, then he returned the favour. A concise example is the village of New Marske. After Pease & Partners bought Upleatham mine from the Derwent Iron Company in 1857, they took on more men to extend the workings. This aggravated an already chronic housing shortage. The miners faced a long walk from old Marske each day before beginning work, so the company constructed the community known as New Marske, much closer to the mine. Modelled on the best designs available for workingmen’s cottages, there was good sanitation, each house also having an allotment where vegetables could be grown and a pig kept. With the mine workings suffering from seepage, pumps were installed underground to clear the workings and force the water up into a reservoir which then provided the new village with an ample supply. Reading rooms and a school were also provided, but as a Quaker Joseph would not allow a public house. He also founded or contributed to schools at Saltburn, Skinningrove and many villages in County Durham, mainly for the children of company employees who by 1865 numbered 10,000 in coal and iron.    Also an elder in the Quaker Society of Friends, Joseph later became a minister and travelled all over England to address congregations. Teetotal and deeply religious, heavily enmeshed in many business concerns, it would be easy to picture him as a dour man. In fact, the reverse was true. Socially, he was regarded as the life and soul of any party, a knowledgeable raconteur welcome in any household.     It was said he could see a hundred years ahead. If not, then he was shrewd almost beyond belief to accomplish all he did before his death at the age of seventy two on the 8th February 1872. He once said, “I have not a drop of coward’s blood in my veins.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Click here for a history of the Zetland Hotel.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Smuggling and Saltburn (from http://www.saltburnbysea.com/html/smuggling.html)

Saltburn's more covert history lies in smuggling and the town is immensely proud of its famous smuggling past, but does it have reason to be so?

"Five-and-twenty ponies,

Trotting through the dark -

Brandy for the Parson,

'Baccy for the Clerk;

Laces for a lady; letters for a spy,

And watch the wall, my darling, while the Gentlemen go by!"

Rudyard Kipling

The coastline from Whitby to Saltburn by the Sea has long been famed for its smuggling activities. Houses in these tiny coastal communities pile one on top of another and it was easy for contraband to be passed from one house to the next without it appearing above ground. Secret rooms were also built into some of the houses so that smugglers could hide from the Excise men.

Smuggling itself was an accepted way of life for English coastal villages in the late 18th and early 19th Century and it was an activity performed by all sorts of people across the social scale from farmhands to clergymen to local gentry. Entire villages would turn out to help hide the contraband goods before the arrival of the preventive officers. Folklore and local legend depicts the smugglers as harmless men, who were merely trying to avoid paying an unlawful tax.

Saltburn and other villages like it were remote and isolated communities where hidden beaches meant unlawful business could be carried on far from prying eyes. Saltburn itself is ideally situated for smuggling as the cliffs provide an effective hiding place and the wooded coves provide cover for offloading cargo. The peak of smuggling activity was over a 150 year period from 1700 and towards the end of the 18th Century, the Saltburn - Whitby area became notorious as a smuggling hotspot.


Smuggling

During this time England fought various expensive wars, particularly against America and France and the Government imposed heavy taxes on imported goods such as gin, tea, brandy and textiles to raise funds. Smuggling was the way to avoid taxation.

Tales of how the local community out-witted the customs officers soon became part of local folklore. One tale has an old woman hiding a keg of spirits underneath her skirts whilst customs officers performed a spot raid of her house. Another tale tells of a mother who found herself victim of a surprise search wrapping a jar of spirit in her baby's clothes, and walking past the guards with it cradled in her arms.

Saltburn's most famous smuggler was John Andrew. Born in Scotland, John Andrew moved to Saltburn and became landlord of the village's Ship Inn in 1780. Andrew's Scottish family were wealthy and well connected and in Saltburn he was a respected member of the community. He entered into a partnership with a local brewer and co-ordinated the area's smuggling trade from the Ship Inn and the White House. His grand daughter christened him 'King of the Smugglers' and he came close to being arrested on a number of occasions. He managed to combine being one of the areas most prolific criminals with a position in the branch of the local militia which was occasionally called upon to help the customs officers in their pursuit of the smugglers!

The quaint picture of smugglers perpetuated by folklore often belies the reality of the times. Battles between the customs men and the smugglers were frequent, fierce and violent and severe injuries were often sustained during these altercations. Legend and folklore portray the smugglers as lovable rogues. However, primary source material tells us a very different story, one of violent men prepared to assault and bludgeon those whose job it was to prevent their illegal trade. Which is the true picture? The likelihood is that there is an element of truth on both sides. The legends have survived and developed, forgetting or simply ignoring the more violent and unsavoury aspects of the smuggling trade, allowing us to empathise with those 'local heroes' who were, in reality, no more than criminals intent on practicing their illegal trade. Whatever your perspective smuggling was an integral part of life in 'Old Saltburn'.

A book about John Andrew called 'Watch the Wall my Darling' has been written by author Richard Swale who describes it as 'faction'. The facts have been provided by John W. Andrew and the fiction by Richard himself. Both are the great, great, great grandsons of John Andrew and James Law, both well known smugglers on the North Yorkshire coast although there is no evidence that the two actually met. The story follows the career of the two smugglers, and although not a strictly true account, gives a vivid picture of the characters, living conditions, and the tough times in which they lived. Tony Lynn, Saltburn's local historian, describes the book as easy to read but hard to put down, being good value at £5.95 and a thoroughly enjoyable read. The book is now available locally, copies are currently available at the Guisborough Bookshop.

No barrier to respectability

The case of Saltburn’s John Andrews, so-called King of Smugglers, proved that smuggling was not a barrier to respectability and polite society. Born in Scotland, Andrews moved to Saltburn and became landlord of the village’s Ship Inn in 1780. Andrew’s Scottish family were wealthy and well connected, he attained the ‘Sublime degree of Master Mason’ prior to relocating in Yorkshire. In partnership with a local brewer, Andrews co-ordinated the area’s smuggling trade from his two properties, the Ship Inn and White House. He was christened ‘King of the Smugglers’ by his grand-daughter, Andrews came close to being arrested on a number of occasions, the most famous of which has entered local legend.

When the Napoleonic Wars came to an end, the Saltburn smugglers came under increasing pressure from customs officers. Forced to unload his latest cargo further a field, John Andrews found himself at Blackhall, north of Hartlepool, when he was discovered by customs officers. Legend has it that he galloped across the Tees, whose level was apparently very low, to Coatham. He then asked the Coatham coastguard for the time in order to give him an alibi. The judge at his trial reasoned that he could not have travelled across the River Tees in the time that had elapsed, and so could not have been at Blackhall. Legend has it that John Andrews had a secret cellar underneath one of his stables where he deliberately kept a vicious mare who could be counted upon to kick and bite any strangers.

In Saltburn, Andrews was a respected member of the community. In 1817 he was elected Master of the newly formed Cleveland Hounds, demonstrating his high standing in the area. Andrews also managed to combine being one of the area’s most prolific criminals with a prominent position in the Corps of Cleveland Pioneer Industry. Ironically, this branch of the local militia was occasionally called in to assist preventive officers in their battle against smugglers!

sleeping man John Andrews relaxing in his chair.

In the mid eighteenth century, tucked away behind Huntcliff, far away from big towns, Saltburn was an ideal place for the smuggling trade. Taxes on imports were high and the goods themselves were scarce because of the war against France. Saltburn's fishermen made ideal smugglers and they found lots of places to hide the tea, coffee, gin, brandy and other necessities, even during daylight hours.

Saltburn's most famous smuggler of all must be the Scotsman, John Andrew. In about 1780 he became landlord of the Ship Inn, just a stone's throw from the sea shore.. He organised the local smuggling community and even had his own lugger, the Morgan Rutter. And what a great cover he had - a wealthy and much respected member of the community, and later, President and Master of Fox Hounds.Eventually he moved to the White House, which was thought to be linked by tunnel to the Ship Inn - a perfect escape route.

After several near misses, Andrew was finally arrested in Hornsea in 1827 and jailed for two years in York Castle. He died in 1835 at the age of seventy four.

The Saltburn smuggling trade began to decline. It became too dangerous. The French wars ended, giving the navy more time to patrol the seas and a branch of the coastguard moved into the Blue House in Saltburn. Later taxes were reduced on imports so smuggling was no longer a profitable business.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Once widowed, Queen Victoria effectively withdrew from public life. Shortly after Prince Albert's death, she arranged for Edward (later Edward VII) to embark on an extensive tour of the Middle East, visiting Egypt, Jerusalem, Damascus, Beirut and Istanbul. The British Government wanted Edward to secure the friendship of Egypt's ruler, Said Pasha, to prevent French control of the Suez Canal if the Ottoman Empire collapsed. It was the first royal tour on which an official photographer, Francis Bedford, was in attendance. As soon as Edward returned to Britain, preparations were made for his engagement, which was sealed at Laeken in Belgium on 9 September 1862. Edward married Alexandra of Denmark at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, on 10 March 1863. He was 21; she was 18.

The marriage of the Prince of Wales, the eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, and Princess Alexandra of Denmark, took place in St George's Chapel, Windsor. Thomas was commissioned to paint the picture. The artist has recorded a later moment in the ceremony. The bride and groom have turned at the altar and are about to move in procession down the Chapel. Queen Victoria can be seen looking down on the ceremony.

The Marriage of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, 10 March 1863

In March 1864 Queen Victoria wrote that Thomas's picture 'is as good as poor Mr. Frith's is bad'. In 1869 she acquired it from the estate of Day and Son.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presumably some of these ages are exaggerated!

Assuming John Farndale refers to the author’s grandfather, John in fact died at the age of 83.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For a modern History of Saltburn, see:

A screenshot of a computer

Description automatically generated with medium confidence

https://www.chrisscottwilson.co.uk/local-history-books/4544927233

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The History of Kilton

With a Sketch of the Neighbouring Villages

By the Returned Emigrant

Dedicated to the Rev William Jolley

Toronto, Canada, America

 

Middlesborough

Burnett & Hood, “Exchange” Printing Offices

1870

Redcar Cleveland Library Book No: R000040114Published: 1870, Classification: 942.854, Book No: R000040114’ Facsimile reprint.

Skinningrove Hall, Cleveland, Yorkshire

 

Introduction

An introduction to this small work, although small, yet I hope it will be interesting to the Tourist. The Emigrant’s return after a long series of years to his nativity, as well as the missionary from the continent; the soldier from his long campaign; the life guard from the city of London – all these we have hailed with joy to their dear home – Kilton, which was formerly proverbial for the multitude of children. Now, strange to say, there are no little boys and girls playing there. Is this well-pleasing to kind Providence, who said to our first parents, when he put them into the Garden of Eden, “Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth”? Would it not be advisable to divide, and subdivide, and divide again this great continent – this farm, and obey our Father’s commands, being fruitful and multiplying, and what a noble race of young boys and girls would then be playing in this Jerusalem, as in the olden time. We are not surprised to hear the above, on their return from a far country, saying, “No place can equal Kilton for loveliness”, standing as it does, in the midst of sylvan scenery, beautiful landscape and woodland scenery, and what a perfume of sweet fragrance from wild flowers, particularly the primrose-acres that would grace any gentleman’s pleasure ground for beauty and for loveliness. Kilton, as it is situated, is fitted only for a prince.

The Emigrant’s Return to visit his birthplace – Kilton

The Emigrant’s return on a visit to his nativity – his father’s father’s house, and where he was born in 1787 – Kilton-in-Cleveland, in the County of York, who, for that purpose, crossed the Atlantic Ocean from America to England and landed at the great Liverpool. Words cannot express the happy emotions throbbing through his mind, as they steamed up the Mersey, and stepping on the shores of old England, thoughts and words like Philippi, King of the French, when he escaped for his life from the massacre, and abdicated the throne of the French, saying, as he trod the English shore, “Thank God I tread on old England’s happy peaceful shore!”. But having no wish to delay, he booked at once for Yorkshire, and his long wished for home of his father’s fathers – Kilton. Every minute, every turning of the wheels glided him on, on till he views the great York Minster, and the range of the Yorkshire hills, nearing Roseberry, nearing home. He dashed through Middlesbrough, with its 40,000, Eston Branch with its blazing furnaces, and new Saltburn-by-the-Sea, all of which he had never seen.  But yonder on the high ridge stands Brotton Church; there was to be seen his father’s tomb, when no time was lost ere he stood on the sepulchre of his father. Reading words and figures chiselled out, near one hundred years before, then moistening the green sward with tears of reflection, below where his father’s ashes lay, then, with slow and solemn step, turned away, and took the well known lane down to Kilton, when at Howe Hill, and seeing a towering chimney above all; what misgivings now trouble his unprepared, peaceful breast. But when he neared his father’s homestead, and no place of it could be found, he moved forward, and looking right and left, he saw some twenty cottages and farmsteads, and behold that beautiful hall and stables that once graced this little town had all disappeared. And he would have enquired had there not been some eruption or some hostile invasion, or had the city not been burnt to ashes, for said he, here are marks of violence and desperation. But “I know nobody no not I, and nobody, nobody here cares for me,” and he lifted up his voice and wept aloud. And he began to examine the book of records, and genealogies of former days, days of his fathers’, and of his youth.  I remember said he some one hundred and twenty parents and children, besides men-servants and women-servants; I remember ten farmers occupant of some seven hundred acres of land, and now it’s absorbed into one large farm, by laying field to field, and adding farm to farm. Surely this gentleman must be Lord of Kilton Manors, for formerly it comprised two Manors. Then he asked, where are all those respected farmers? Had they and their sons to find a home in some far-away land, and to perish out of sight? I see in the book recorded and registered in olden time, the names of farmers who once occupied this great farm – R and W Jolly, M Young, R Mitchell; W Wood, J Harland, T Toas, J Readman, J Farndale [Note – perhaps this is John Farndale, Old Farndale of Kilton, FAR00143), S Farndale [could this be Samuel Farndale, FAR00149?], J and W Farndale [Perhaps the brothers John Farndale FAR00167, and William Farndale, FAR00183], all these tenants once occupied this great farm; now blended into one.  I remember what a muster at the Kilton rent days, twice a year, when dinner was provided for a quarter of a hundred tenants, Brotton, Moorsholm, Stanghoe, those paid their rents at Kilton; and were indeed belonging to the Kilton Court, kept here also, and the old matron proudly provided a rich plum pudding and roast beef; and the steward also a jolly punch bowl, for it was a pleasure to him to take the rents at Kilton, the day before Skelton rent day. The steward always called old J Farndale (FAR00143) to the vice-chair, he being old, and the oldest tenant. Farndale’s was the most numerous family, and had lived on the estate for many ages. Kilton had many mechanics, and here we had a public house, a meeting house, two lodging houses, and a school house, to learn our ABCs, from which sprang two eminent school masters, who became extremely popular; we had a butcher’s shop, we had a London tailor and is apprentice, and eight other apprentices more; we had a rag merchant and a shop which sold song books, pins, needles, tape and thread; we had five sailors, two soldiers, two missionaries, besides a number of old people, aged 80, 90 and 100 years. But last, not least, Wm Tulley Esq., who took so much interest in the old castle – planted its orchard, bowling green, and made fish ponds, which were fed by a reservoir near the Park House, Kiltonthorpe, Kilton Lodge, together with all these improvements around the castle, which are now no more.

Here we have chronicled something like a genealogy of a race of people once throng the streets of Kilton, but where are they now to be found? Many of them have gone to their everlasting reward, yet a few, a small few, remain unto this day. We believe Kilton had the pre-eminence of many of its neighbouring villages. We knew o poachers, no cockfighters, no drunkards, or swearers. Kilton people were church-going people, yet, on a Sunday afternoon, what hosts of young men and young women mustered for play, their song was:

There is little Kilton, lies under yon hill,

Lasses anew lad, come when you will;

They’re witty, they’re pretty, they’re handsomely bound,

A lo! for the lasses in Kilton town.

I cannot forget that marvellous deliverance of little Farndale (FAR00167), when he fell head foremost into the well, and was found dangling by a buckle on his shoe. That well is shut up, and all those well known cottages and shops of business and farmsteads all rased to the ground, and not a wreck is left behind.

This was the only liberty those fair damsels had, they had no time allowed to waste, when the cows were milked and supper ended they and their dames, all hands sat down to their wheels, for all farmers spun their linen and woollen ware. I have in my house, both sheeting and blankets spun at Kilton seventy years ago, and weaved and bleached also at Kilton.

As my time is limited and I must take the first mail, I should like a day’s ramble to see once more and for ever this most delightful district, and all the villages around my native home – little Kilton.

 

Kilton Old Castle in the Wood

Camden, in speaking o Kilton and Kilton Old Castle, as Farndale (FAR00167) has it in his Guide to Saltburn by the Sea, says “It is situated in a park belonging to the ancient families of Thweng and Lumley’s. Baron Lumley, of Kilton Castle, died in battle, having joined the Earl of Kent and others to restore King Richard, then deposed. Kilton Manors, for there were two, became forfeited to the crown, but restored to the Thwing’s and Lumbley’s, by Henry IV, and by marriage to Wm Tulley Esq., who died at Kilton Hall, and was interred in Brotton Church 1741, aged 72 years. Then to Dr Waugh, of Carlisle, and next in kin to the Misses Waugh, who sold the estate to Miss Wharton, of Thirsk Hall, a rich old lady, and this lady presented it as a gift to her nephew, J Hall Wharton Esq., MP, and now it is the property of JT Wharton Esq., of Skelton Castle. At the above date Kilton Hall was then a beautiful building, much admired. Mr Ord, in giving a description of Kilton Castle, says “Few ruins in England can equal this venerable relic of antiquity – as a fortress it must have proved impregnable previous to the introduction of artillery. Standing on a high triangular precipice unapproachable. Except on the west, and here it was defended by a mote and draw bridge, and large massive gate way doors”

 

Kilton Castle

In this figure is represented Old Reynard and the two dogs that took him as he leaped from the Watch Tower in the presence of the Author, and Consitt Dryden Esq., sixty years ago

Here

Let me remind the singing bird,

The feathered tribe, and say –

 

Other guests than you lone birds,

Other music here was heard –

In olden times, in bye-gone days,

The brave, the sage, the bard.

 

Festive rev’lry went round,

With sparkling goblets filled;

Rich carpets clad the ground

Where ox his belly fills.

 

Our father’s fathers told us

What noble deeds were done

In olden times before them –

Their father’s mothers’ sons.

 

We’ve seen life’s morning brighten

We’ve revelled in its day;

And tho’ the rosy sunset

Is changing into grey,

 

With all so calm before us,

‘Tis pleasure to look back;

And mark where pleasure’s sun beams

Have left their golden track.

 

As my time is limited, and I must be off by the first mail, I should like a day’s ramble once more and for ever, to this most delightful district, and villages around Brotton, and Brotton Church, the sepulchre of my fathers’, and where with them I was a regular attender. I remember old Willie Swales bidding his dead father farewell, and his intended verses on his tomb stone –

Whea lies here? Whea d’ye think?

Poor Willie Swales – he loved a drop of drink;

Drink to him as you pass by,

For poor Willie Swales was always dry.”

The church has been greatly improved, new slated roof and a most radical change in the interior; the old pews …

There appears to be some missing text at this point in the copy I have

 

On my way to Old Saltburn I passed Bell’s gothic hall, and in view of the pleasure grounds of the new town, Saltburn by the Sea, and that magnificent iron bridge of Squire Wharton’s, mountains high, and spanning the dell across the most delightful ravine to the new town. But as its erection, awful to say, three workmen were dashed from the top to the bottom and were killed. Then again I see the old Cat Nab, where I have seen thousands of bundles of rods for the northern coal pits. I can imagine how old Wm Farndale (FAR00183), and his host of men and waggons loading with rods the sloop The Two Brothers, and after dining together at David Latter’s little public house, when perhaps another vessel appeared for the next tide, and another for the tide following, and those chosen handy men failed not to be in time and on the spot when all must be done before Old Neptune came creeping round, but oft time Billy and Farmer have been belly deep, yet the work must be done. This was Old Saltburn’s prosperity, when gin could be got for a penny a glass, real Hollands. In the former days there were seen oft times near Old Saltburn, two or three luggers at a time all laden with contraband goods, and the song of the crews used to be –

If ever we should the Scottish coast hie,

We’ll make Capt Oggerby, the king’s cutter fly.

 

Old King Saltburn, Dear Old Saltburn

When a boy I remember his glee,

When high in the valley he stood,

What a jolly old fellow was he,

                  Old King Saltburn, dear Old Saltburn,

How low in the valley is he,

Would he tell us his merry exploits,

What a jolly good fellow he’d be.

 

On my way to Skinningrove, I mounted the rocky, craggy height of Huntcliff, what an extensive view far and wide, and where the Cormorant, Bittern, Raven, Jack, and the Gull made their nests and home, and on the rocky beach below balmed in the sun the Sea Calf where many a gallant ship and crew have perished. I find the cliff considerably lowered, and a railroad to Skinningrove and Lofthouse. The sea bird has sought, another home, and I thus pensively reflected on bye gone days, said –

On the steep rock of Huntcliff I stood,

Wash’d below by the ocean’s white foam,

And a voice seemed to whisper to me,

O why did I ever leave home.

 

The friends of my youth are all gone,

No more in these valleys to roam;

In the grave yard at Brotton they rest,

O why did I ever leave home.

Then passing down Cattersty Creak, where many a cargo of smuggled goods have been delivered here, is a very choice place. The last I remember in this place is that Tom Webster strangled himself by carrying gin tubs round is neck. Once more I stand on Skinningrove duffy sands, where I have seen it crowded with wood and corf rods for the North by the said Wm (FAR00183) and John (FAR00143) Farndale. But what crowds of horses, men, and waggons, when the gin ship appeared in view. Our friends had no dealings with those Samaritan gin runners, yet they had great dealings at Skinningrove seaport, oth in export and import, as well as supplying the hall of F Easterby Esq., with corn, wheat, oats, beans, butter, cheese, hams, potatoes &c, &c, and once, a year  at Christmas – they balanced accounts, over a bottle of Hollands gin, and after eulogising each other, the squire would rise and say, “Johnny, when you are gone, there will never be such another Johnny Farndale (FAR00143)”. Here lived the King’s officer, in the high season of gin running, but I knew of few captures; he wished to live and die in peace, and the revenue received little from his services. Near Skinnngrove are the Lofthouse iron mines, Messrs Pearse, lessees. Above is the grand iron bridge standing on twelve massive pillars, 178 feet high, which spans the cavern from the Kilton Estate to Liverton Estate, the first and grandest in all England. Lofthouse, and their long famed alum works, which has been the support of Lofthouse for ages gone, but now discontinued. How well I remember my school days when we faced all weather through Kilton Woods, and how I respected my masters – the Rev Wm Barrick, Mr Wm King, the great navigator, and Captain Napper, steward to the works. The popular Midsummer Lofthouse fair was the only fair we children were allowed to attend.

 

Crinkle Park, Easington

I called at this park, and found that it exceeded my sanguine expectations. The hall, which is well built, is of freestone, and the park, the towers, plantations, walks, shrubberies, and vineries are all in good taste. My guide called my attention to a relic from Kilton Hall, by the late Squire Wharton – the arms of Wm Tulley Esq., which I have valued, as a relic from Kilton Hall, worth £1,000. Handale Abbey, once a brilliant linen spinning factory with ne hundred windows, was a grand sight from Kilton when the sun rose in the morning. The abbey, a fine building of free stone, was well furnished, and kept by one servant as a shooting box, a situation for any gentleman had it been elsewhere but a most retired situation. Liverton adjoining, ‘twas here my school going ended, but I shall never finish until death. Here were characters notorious for poachers, and cockfighters. Once I stepped to see them, when I saw a lot of vagabonds, and in the pit two naked birds, with steel spurs two inches long, and the little birds fighting for death. Here were respected families who cared not for these things, and I proceeded.

 

Moorsholm

Moorsholm on the Moor, near that noted Freeburgh Hill, as round and beautiful as a pear, and from which you can view ten square miles of ;land moor, and see most delightfully. It was here a young mother came many miles, and behind this hill butchered her innocent little boy, and quartered him, for which she was deservedly transported for life. Here let me relate an anecdote of Paul, who lived and died at Moorsholm. There was an assize trial at York about a water course running under ground, and Paul, who was a fine upright fellow, with a high brow and bluff face, had to appear as a witness on the occasion. When Paul went into the witness box, the counsellor on the opposite side having silenced a man of letters, very promptly said to Paul as he stared at him, “Well Mr Baconface, and what have you got to say n the subject?” “Why,” replied Paul, with a significant grin, “if my bacon face and thy calf head were boiled together they would make a good broth.” The counsellor looked abashed, and the whole court roared with laughter. Again, to fix Paul, “Well, my man, how did you know that it was the same water that run out as that which run in.” “Why I took care to blunder it before it went in, and it came out blundered.” Paul won the case.

 

By Lockwood Beck Little Public House to Stanghow

Here Kilton waggoners called for refreshment as they returned from the coal pits home, and oft-times at snow cuttings, then they have spent a merry night. The last I remember was when Willie Swales dropped in on his night rambles, and would call for another pot, when lo, the Old Stag’s Head cellar was dry. It was not long after this that he was found dead in a field under his cart, and was buried in Brotton Church Yard. Stanghow was his home. We pass by our dear cousins, J Scarth Esq., they have gone to their resting place, the grave. I now pass Kilton Thorp, to spend a night with my old friend Farndale (FAR00167). On entering his hospitable hall I said, “Sir, I am reminded of the battle of Waterloo, when Wellngton and Blucher with their lion-looking men accidentally met pursuing the fugitive French, when those two great generals, with uncovered heads, congratulated themselves and their victorious armies, and so may I you; your father (FAR00183) and mine almost in equal circumstances placed us in this world to fight our passage through. If providence do point a demarcation and you follow, all well, but if you cross the line of providence your case will not be like the two generals, their’s were one equal interest – the salvation of their country and themselves. I find yours have been on the defensive, mine on the aggressive; you never left the citadel and therefore met no foe, but to the contrary, I have battled the world round, and therefore often found in fierce engagements with the foe. The contrast is widely different – peace on the one hand and war n the other. But all are equal in the grave. And now I will advertise what shall befall Kilton in those later days. Kilton will stand most pre-eminently above all the villages around. In imagination even now I see splendid terraces, standing in view of Lofthouse, Easington, Handale Abbey, Liverton, and a hall exceeding far the former one; I see a parsonage house and school house and cottages, many already, plantations, and a most splendid agricultural homestead on the best modern plan. Good success to JT Wharton Esq., of Skelton Princely Castle.

And now, dear Farndale, he best of friends must part,

I bid you and your little Kilton a long and final farewell!

 

Time was unto all a precious boon,

Time is passing away so soon;

Time no ore is vast eternity,

World without end, oceans without shore.

 

Burnett & Hood, “Exchange” Offices, Middlesborough.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This text is written anonymously by “The Returned Emigrant”. It is not immediately apparent who this is. It starts to be written in the third person. The text records that the Returned Emigrant was born in 1787. That was not the year of John Farndale’s birth – he was born in 1791. Indeed I do not know of any possible members of the Farndale family born on that date who might have fitted a description of the Returned Emigrant, who clearly travelled to America. But it is someone who knew of and was a great friend of the Farndales. And this text writes extensively of the Farndales, as well as about Kilton.

Nevertheless unless it is demonstrated to be otherwise, I believe that the author was John Farndale.  Although the text starts to be written in the third person, of the experience of the Returned Emigrant, it later turns to the first person. It adopts some significant similarities in the language to the History of Saltburn. In the text in the first person it repeats poetry which was written by John Farndale in his history of Saltburn – see for instance the “O Why did I ever leave home” poem in this text, which comes directly from a longer poem authored by John Farndale in his history of Saltburn.

The Third Party text is sometimes addressed to the Farndales, and John did not travel overseas as far as we know, so he can’t have been the Returned Emigrant himself.

I wonder if this whole text was written by John Farndale, but he starts in the third person text describing perhaps a friend of his from early days in Kilton, who was perhaps born in 1787 (four years before John, so such a person could well have been a friend or known to him), who had perhaps travelled to America. Perhaps it is John Farndale who uses the fiction of his returned friend experiencing Kilton after a long absence, as a tool to describe the place which was clearly of great importance to John himself.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The author is describing real people from Kilton here. For instance we know from the case study by Jane Dowey below that one of the sons of Robert Jolly moved away from Kilton and became a life guard to George III and the other son eventually became a minister

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Farndale (FAR00136) from Whitby sailed with Captain Cook on the ship, the Three Brothers!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Easington is east of Loftus.

 

Handale is south of Loftus.

 

 

 

 

Freeburgh Road today runs through Moorsholm village towards Freeburgh Hill at Ordnance Survey Grid NZ689127.

 

 

 

Lockwood Beck Farm is at NZ670138 and Stanghow is NW of Moorsholm

 

So he writes of his old friend, John Farndale, the author. This tends to suggest John Farndale is not himself the author. But perhaps it is a literary tool.

 

This text is quite difficult to interpret. The Returned Emigrant is speaking to John Farndale the author and comparing his life of aggressive travel, to John Farndale’s peaceful (perhaps passive) sedentary life. It seems to be almost degrading of John’s passivity. But the language is fond of John. The similarity of text and stroes in the receding text, make it more likely that this is all the work of John himself.

 

 

 

The final poem is exactly the same as that which ends John’s Saltburn Guide, except for the last line which differs.

 

The History of the Ancient Hamlet of Kilton-in-Cleveland, printed by W Rapp, Dundas Street, Saltburn 1870

Records of extracts:

"My first remembrance began in my nurse's arms when I could not have been more than 1 1/2 years old; a memory as vivid as if it were yesterday. She took me out on St Stephen's Day 1973 into the current Garth (a small enclosure) with a stick and 'solt' to kill a hare. A great day at the time”. Another time (after celebrating the victory of Trafalgar, 1805) he was dangling head foremost down the draw well hanging by the buckle of his shoe. He goes on to describe a very happy childhood and he clearly adored his mother. "At this time I believe I loved God and was happy."

He remembered "an old relation of my father" (there were several in Kilton at that time) remarking that his elder brother George was a "prodigal son", while John was the son at home with his father. But he describes how he got up to many frolics and had some narrow escapes, although he was no drunkard or swearer.

His parents, he said, "were strict Church people and kept a strict look out. I became leader of the (Brotton) church signers, clever in music" and he excelled his friends. He had a close friend, a musician in the church choir. One day he met him and said he had been very ill and had been reading a lot of books including "Aeleyn's Alarum" and others "which nearly made my hair stand on end." . His friend told him that he was going to alter his way of life and if John would not refrain from his revelries, he would "be obliged to forsake your company.". "That was a nail in a sure place. I was ashamed and grieved as I thought myself more pious than he. Now I began to enter a new life as suddenly at St Paul's but with this difference, he was in distress for three days and nights but for me it was three months". He fasted all Lent and describes his torment. "How often I went onto the hill with my Clarinet to play my favourite tune."

His companion lived one mile away (at Brotton perhaps?) and they met half way every Sunday morning at 6am for prayer. He remembered well meeting in a corner of a large grass field. George (Sayer) began and he followed. When they finished they opened their eyes to see "a rough farm lad standing over us, no doubt a little nervous. Next day this boy said to others in the harvest field 'George Sayer and John Farndale are two good lads for I found them in a field praying.' " On the following Sunday they moved to a small wood and met under an oak tree and met an old man who wanted to join them. As usual George began and John continued when the old man began to roar in great distress

 

 

Memoirs

On his 84th birthday (1874) John wrote his memoirs. He stated that he was in good health. He died in 1879 aged 88. The following notes are taken from his memoirs which were written in very descriptive Victorian English.

He first described Kilton as "of great interest with a great hall, stable, plantation and ancient stronghold in ruins (Kilton Castle)". "It is still a small place" he says and he describes how many have left it and made their name.

"My first remembrance began in my nurse's arms when I could not have been more than 1 ½ years old; a memory as vivid as if it were yesterday. She took me out on St Stephen's Day 1973 into the current Garth (a small enclosure) with a stick and 'solt' to kill a hare. A great day at the time.” Another time (after celebrating the victory of Trafalgar, 1805) he was dangling head foremost down the draw well hanging by the buckle of his shoe. He goes on to describe a very happy childhood and he clearly adored his mother. "At this time I believe I loved God and was happy."

He remembered "an old relation of my father" (there were several in Kilton at that time) remarking that his elder brother George was a "prodigal son", while John was the son at home with his father. But he describes how he got up to many frolics and had some narrow escapes, although he was no drunkard or swearer.

His parents, he said, "were strict Church people and kept a strict look out. I became leader of the (Brotton) church signers, clever in music" and he excelled his friends. He had a close friend, a musician in the church choir. One day he met him and said he had been very ill and had been reading a lot of books including "Aeleyn's Alarum" and others "which nearly made my hair stand on end." . His friend told him that he was going to alter his way of life and if John would not refrain from his revelries, he would "be obliged to forsake your company.". "That was a nail in a sure place. I was ashamed and grieved as I thought myself more pious than he. Now I began to enter a new life as suddenly at St Paul's but with this difference, he was in distress for three days and nights but for me it was three months". He fasted all Lent and describes his torment. "How often I went onto the hill with my Clarinet to play my favourite tune."

His companion lived one mile away (at Brotton perhaps?) and they met half way every Sunday morning at 6am for prayer. He remembered well meeting in a corner of a large grass field. George (Sayer) began and he followed. When they finished they opened their eyes to see "a rough farm lad standing over us, no doubt a little nervous. Next day this boy said to others in the harvest field 'George Sayer and John Farndale are two good lads for I found them in a field praying.' " On the following Sunday they moved to a small wood and met under an oak tree and met an old man who wanted to join them. As usual George began and John continued when the old man began to roar in great distress.

 

A text, Impact of Agricultural Change on the Rural Community - a case study of Kilton circa 1770-1870, Janet Dowey includes much about John Farndale and his writings

The most predominant family at Kilton was the Farndales, their ancestry ages old. Its most distinguished member John Farndale wrote numerous books on the area. Kilton, the village itself had been a thriving community consisting of a public house, a meeting house, two lodging houses and a schoolhouse, from which sprang two eminent schoolmasters. A butcher's shop, a London tailor and his apprentice and eight others, a rag merchant, a shop which sold some books, pens, needles, tape and thread. Five sailors, two soldiers, two missionaries plus a number of very old people.

The picture John Farndale paints is of a peaceful rural community who boasted of no poachers, no cockfighters, no drunkards or swearers. A church going people who met together on a Sunday afternoon. Kilton at that time had nearly 20 houses and a population of 140 men, women and children, a Hall, stables, plantation and the old Castle plus 12 small farms stop when John wrote these books he was speaking of a time long since gone (the early nineteenth century), he listed each family that lives lived within the village.

Robert Jolly was a farmer and a staunch Wesleyan. After his death his farm was carried on awhile by his sons. This being the time of Nelson's death (1805), John goes on to say that there was great reformation in Kilton estate, "the little farms were joined together, about 150 acres each. Every farmer had to move to a new farm. The sons of Robert Jolly each moved away at this time, one became a lifeguard to George III and the other eventually became a minister. William Bulmer was another native of Kilton and married with nine children, he made his living buying and selling, but all his children moved away into 'respectable' situations."

Many of the farmers were weavers too, one in particular, George Bennison, had two looms plus his land and also prepared a colt for Northallerton fair once a year stop. The children of these farmers continually moved away from the district and agriculture. John Farndale says "and now they disappear, but where are they gone, I know not". John Tuke says "it is observable, but in those families which have succeeded from generation to generation to the same farm, the strongest attachment to old customs prevails. For conduct and character, the farmer under survey must deservedly rank high among their fellows in any part of England, they are generally sober, industrious and orderly; most of the younger part of them have enjoyed a proper education, and give a suitable one to their children, who, of both sexes, are brought up in habits of industry and economy. Such conduct rarely fails meeting its reward; they who merit, and seek it, obtain independence, and every generation, or part of every generation, may be seen stepping forward to a scale in society somewhat beyond the last."

However Thomas Hardy in his book "Tess of the D'Urbervilles", states "all mutations so increasingly discernible in village life did not originate entirely in the agricultural unrest. A depopulation was going on." The village life which Hardy talks about had previously "contained" side by side with agricultural labourers an "interesting and better informed class". These included a carpenter, a Smith, shoemaker, huckster "together with nondescript workers" in addition to the farm labourers. A group of people who "owed a certain stability of aim and conduct to the fact of their being life-holders or copyholders or occasionally small freeholders." When the long holdings fell in they were rarely again let to identical tenants, and they were usually pulled down, if they were not needed by the farmer or his workers. "Cottagers who were not directly employed on the land were looked upon with disfavour, and the banishment of some starved the trade of others, who were thus obliged to follow." Families such as these had formed the backbone of the village life in the past who were the depositories of the village traditions, had to seek refuge in the large centres; the process, designated by statisticians as the tendency of the rural population towards the large towns being really the tendency of water to flow uphill when forced by machinery.

And so to the conclusion:-

"An introduction to this small work, although small, yet I hope it will be interesting to the tourist. The emigrants returning after a long series of years to his nativity, as well as the missionary from the continent, the soldier from his long campaign; the lifeguard from the city of London all these we have hailed with joy to their dear home Kilton, which strange to say there are no little boys ought and girls playing there. Is this well pleasing, to kind providence, who said to our first parents, when he puts them into the Garden of Eden, "be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth." Would it not be advisable to divide and subdivide and divide again this great continent - this farm, and obey our Father's commands, being fruitful and multiplying, and what a noble race of young girls would then be playing in this Jerusalem, as in the olden time.

We are now surprised to hear the above, on their return from a far country saying, "no place can equal Kilton for loveliness" standing as it does, in the midst of sylvan scenery, beautiful landscape and woodland scenery, and what a perfume of sweet fragrance from wildflowers, particularly the primrose acres that would grace any gentleman's pleasure ground of beauty into loveliness. Kilton as it is situated, is fitted only for a prince"

"Now much has changed, we oft times have looked and looked again, but no corner of this large farm has been neglected. Witness, this rich stack yard of 100 acres of wheat, the staff of life, and 100 more, oats, beans, peas, hay, clover, potatoes and turnips piled up against the winter storms. In the fold are housed 100 head of sheep, a stable with 14 farming horses, besides the young horses, pigs and geese in abundance, carts, wagons, ploughs and harrows and all implements.

"He makes across the hills adorn,

He clothes the smiling fields with corn,

the beasts with food his hands supply,

and the young ones when they cry."

This was the Kilton John Farndale knew and loved. It had changed beyond belief. Several of the very old and larger states were less crowded than they had been; where a better cultivation had taken place, the small cottages had given way gradually to shape a farm worthy of the person having such money to improve it. A lot of the field structures and hedges were still in place, only some of the hedges had been taken out to make bigger fields. The hedge structure at Kilton was probably there 50 years before John Farndale was born. In one instance a hedge appears to have been put in to divide a field.

Some of the reasons for the demise of Kilton were the industrial revolution, which was the need to centralise craftsmen from the small villages, a revolution in farming methods and farming machinery, a wholesale destruction of the village for the town. The Napoleonic Wars had an influence on the price of farm produce, the price of food was kept at a fairly high level during the war but after the war finished the price of grain fell to one of its lowest levels along with falling meat prices, and disastrous harvests. Farming methods were needed to get the harvest in quicker. This finally led the landlord to enlarge the farms and bring in a farmer with money to modernise the farm. The mechanisation of farming policies on the one hand and the progressive quantity of urban factories on the other, combined to drastically alter that rural life. Taking into consideration also the turnpike roads, the invention of the railway and the canal networks it is obvious that economic and technological forces were bringing far reaching changes. During the period when enclosure was in progress, "the revolution in agricultural methods", there was moderately steady process of new village creation, a considerable upsurge within the 18th century. Enclosure or amalgamation of the Kilton village farms, probably happened in the late 1860s, thus was the complete destruction of the village.

Kilton became a victim not only of the "Monstre farm" but also of the Industrial Revolution

"And now dear Farndale, the best of friends must part,

I bid you and your little Kilton along and final farewell.

Time was on to all our precious boon,

Time is passing away so soon,

Time know more about his vast eternity,

World without end oceans without sure."

John Farndale. 1870